As opposed to blind patriotism, a moderate form of constructive patriotism has been depicted in previous research and empirically observed. The major distinction between blind patriotism and constructive patriotism lies in the latter’s capacity for criticism. Our research suggests, however, an additional distinction dividing constructive patriotism into two forms: one form is capable of practical judgment (hence, political constructive patriotism), and the other form is critical on grounds of ethical issues (hence moral constructive patriotism). This study then seeks to examine which sort of patriotism prevails within society during wartime; of special interest, for that matter, are the suggested variations of constructive patriotism. Two diverse cases have been chosen in order to examine the reactions within a democratic society: The American case of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Israeli case of the 2006 war in Lebanon. A substantive content analysis has been employed, surveying social processes through a variety of articles in an American and an Israeli daily newspaper. The findings reveal that in both cases among expressions of constructive patriotism, those of political constructive patriotism form a vast majority and only a few of them express moral constructive patriotism. It therefore seems that constructive patriots are not necessarily as moral as they might seem to be at first glance, even though they criticize state and society. The case of war in particular proves how on moral grounds criticism is important, but not enough.
Cite this paper
Lewin, E. (2013) Constructive Patriotism in Wartime. Open Journal of Political Science
, 107-112. doi: 10.4236/ojps.2013.34015
 Arskey, H., & Knight, P. T. (1999). Interviewing for social scientists: An introductory resource with examples. London: Sage.
 Blank, T., & Schmidt, P. (2003). National identity in a united Germany: Nationalism or patriotism? An empirical test with representative data. Political Psychology, 2, 289-312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00329
 Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 Hoffmann, P. (1996). The history of the German resistance 1933-1945. Canada: Mcgill-Queen’s University Press.
 Huddy, L., & Khatib, N. (2007). American patriotism, national identity, and political involvement. American Journal of Political Science, 51, 63-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00237.x
 Jupp, V. (1996). Documents and critical research. In R. Sapsford, & V. Jupp (Eds). Data collection and analysis. London: Sage.
 Jupp, V., & Norris, C. (1993). Traditions in documentary analysis. In M. Hammersley, (Ed.), Social Research: Philosophy, Politics and Practice. London: Sage.
 Nathanson, S. (1989). In defense of “moderate patriotism”. Ethics, 98, 535-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/293096
 Oldenquist, A. (1982). Loyalties. Journal of Philosophy, 79, 173-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2026219
 Rebhun, U., & Waxman, C. I. (2003). Israel in the early twenty-first century: Challenging internal and global developments. Israel Affairs, 9, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537120412331321503d
 Rothi, D. M., Lyons, E., & Chryssochoou, X. (2005). National attachment and patriotism in a European nation: A British study. Political Psychology, 26, 135-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2005.00412.x
 Schaar, J. H. (1981). The case for covenanted patriotism, legitimacy in the modern state. London: Transaction Books.
 Schatz, R. T., Staub, E., & Lavine, H. (1999). On the varieties of national attachment: Blind versus constructive patriotism. Political Psychology, 20, 151-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00140
 Shirer, W. (1964). The rise and fall of the Third Reich. London: Pan Books.
 Slater, D. (1998). Analyzing cultural objects: Content analysis and semiotics. In C. Seale (Ed.), Researching Society and Culture. London: Sage.
 Somerville, J. (1981). Patriotism and war. Ethics, 91, 568-578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/292271
 Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Tenet, J. (2007). At the center of the storm—My years at the CIA. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
 Tice, S. M. (2008). Lebanon. Journal of Mine Action, 12.1.http://maic.jmu.edu/journal/12.1/cp/lebanon/lebanon.htm
 Viroli, M. (1995). For Love of Country. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 Wilson, J. (2005). The politics of truth. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf.