OJMH  Vol.3 No.4 , October 2013
The Influence of Land-Use on Water Quality in a Tropical Coastal Area: Case Study of the Keta Lagoon Complex, Ghana, West Africa
Abstract: The Keta Lagoon and its catchment areas in Ghana are influenced by intensive agriculture and the use of agro-chemicals. It has therefore, become necessary to assess the quality of water in the lagoon and the surrounding fresh water aquifers. In this study, a water quality index (WQI), indicating the water quality has been adopted. The WQI was determined on a basis of various physico-chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrates, ammonium and sodium. The index was used both for tracking changes at one site over time, and for comparisons among sites. The WQI was also employed to wells used for irrigation on farms along the Keta Sand Spit as well as that of the Keta Lagoon Complex and its surrounding floodplains, in order to ascertain the quality of water for public and livestock consumption, irrigation, recreation and other purposes. The WQI of the wells, Keta lagoon and its floodplains showed various degrees of poor water quality and therefore considered unsuitable for drinking and recreation. By WHO standards, this calls for intensive physical and chemical treatment of the water for human consumption.
Cite this paper: A. M. Lamptey, P. K. Ofori-Danson, S. Abbenney-Mickson, H. Breuning-Madsen and M. K. Abekoe, "The Influence of Land-Use on Water Quality in a Tropical Coastal Area: Case Study of the Keta Lagoon Complex, Ghana, West Africa," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 188-195. doi: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34023.

[1]   T. W. Awadzi, E. Ahiabor and H. Breuning-Madsen, “The Soil-Land Use System in a Sandspit Area in the Semi-Arid Coastal Savanna Region of Ghana. Sustainability and Threats,” Technical Paper, 2007.

[2]   P. K. Ofori-Danson, M. Entsua-Mensah and C. A. Biney, “Monitoring of Fisheries in Five Lagoon Ramsar Sites in Ghana,” Final Report to the Department of Wildlife under the Ghana Coastal Wetlands Management Project, Forestry Commission, Accra, 1999.

[3]   R. D. Asiamah, “Soils of the Ho-Keta Plains, Volta Region, Ghana,” Soil Research Institute, Kumasi, 1995.

[4]   T. Piersma and Y. Ntiamoa-Baidu, “Waterbird Ecology and the Management of Coastal Wetlands in Ghana,” NIOZ Report 1995-1996, Royal |Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel, 1995.

[5]   J. A. Skinner, K. A. Lewis, K. S. Bardon, P. Tucker, J. A. Catt and B. J. Chambers, “An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Agriculture in the UK,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1997, pp. 111-128.

[6]   T. H. Sorensen, G. Volund, A. K. Armah, C. Christensen, L. B. Jensen and J. T. Pedersen, “Temporal and Spatial Variations in Concentrations of Sediment Nutrients and Carbon in the Keta Lagoon, Ghana,” West African Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 4, 2003, pp. 91-105.

[7]   A. K. Armah, M. Awumbila, S. Clark, A. Szietror, R. Foster-Smith, R. Porter and E. M. Young, “Coping Responses and Strategies in the Coastal Zone of South-Eastern Ghana. A Case Study in the Anloga Area,” In: S. M. Evans, C. J. Vanderpuye and A. K. Armah, Eds., The Coastal Zone of West Africa—Problems and Management, Proceedings of an International Seminar, Accra, 23-28 March 1996, Penshaw Press, Sunderland, 1997, pp. 17-27.

[8]   Anonymous, “Ramsar Library: The Directory of Wetlands of International Importance,” 4th Edition, The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar Secretariat, Gland, 1993.

[9]   G. O. Kesse, “The Mineral and Rock Resources of Ghana,” A. A. Balkema, Rottendam/Boston, 1985.

[10]   R. Arfi, D. Gurial and M. Bouvy, “Wind-Induced Resuspension in a Shallow Tropical Lagoon,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1993, pp. 587-604.

[11]   APHA, “Water Analysis Handbook,” 2nd Edition, HACH Company World, Washington DC, 1995.

[12]   D. C. Harris, “Quantitative Chemical Analysis,” 4th Edition, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1995.

[13]   H. B. Sawyer, “Chemistry Experiments for Instrumental Methods,” Wiley, New York, 1984.

[14]   International Standard Organization, “Sodium Chloride for Industrial Use—Determination of Matter Insoluble in Water or in Acid, and Preparation of Principal Solutions for Other Determinations,” ISO, Vol. 2479, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1972-1974.

[15]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Calcium: Method 215.1 (Atomic Absorption, Direct Aspiration),” In: Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, U.S.E.P.A., Cincinnati, 1983, pp. 215.1-215.2.

[16]   US Environmental Protection Agency, “Metals (Atomic Absorption Methods)—General Procedure for Analysis by Atomic Absorption,” In: Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, U.S.E.P.A., Cincinnati, 1983, pp. 67-70.

[17]   European Union Salt Producers Association (EuSalt), “Determination of Calcium and Magnesium. Flame Atomic Spectrophotometric Method,” EuSalt, Brussels, 2005, p. 5.

[18]   C. R. Ramakrishnaiah, C. Sadashivaiah and C. Ranganna, “Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India,” E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2009, pp. 523-530.

[19]   WHO (World Health Organization), “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” 3rd Edition, WHO, Geneva, 2004.

[20]   A. H. M. J. Alobaidy, H. S. Abid and B. K. Maulood, “Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Dokan Lake Ecosystem, Kurdistan Region, Iraq,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2010, pp. 792-798.

[21]   S. K. Mohanty, “Water Quality Index of Four Religious Ponds and Its Seasonal Variation in the Temple City, Bhuvaneshwar,” In: A. Kumar, Ed., Water Pollution, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2004, pp. 211-218.

[22]   B. K. Kortatsi, E. Young and A. Mensah-Bonsu, “Potential Impact of Large Scale Abstraction on the Quality of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation in the Keta Strip, Ghana,” West African Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 8, 2005, pp. 1-12.

[23]   O. K. Borggaard, C. Szilas, A. L. Gimsing and L. H. Rasmussen, “Estimation of Soil Phosphate Adsorption Capacity by Means of a Pedotransfer Function,” Geoderma, Vol. 118, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 55-61.

[24]   S. E. A. T. M. Van der Zee, M. M. Nederlof, W. H. van Riemsdijk and F. A. M. de Hann, “Spatial Variability of Phosphate Adsorption Parameters,” Journal of Enviromental Quality, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1988, pp. 682-688.

[25]   EC (EUROPEAN COUNCIL), Consolidated Text Produced by the CONSLEG System of the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Council Directive of 16 June 1975, “Concerning the Quality Required of Surface Water Intended for the Abstraction of Drinking Water in the Member States (75/440/EEC),” Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg City, 1991.