Addo Yobo, E. O., & Lovel, H. (1992). Hospital users’ knowledge about blood transfusion and awareness and attitudes towards AIDS/ HIV infection in a region in Ghana. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 38, 94 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/38.2.94
 Asante, F. A. (2010). National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA): Level and flow of resources and expenditure to confront HIV and AIDS, DRAFT. Accra: Institute of Statistical Social and Economic Research (ISSER), University of Ghana, UNAIDS Ghana Country Office, Ghana AIDS Commission.
 Bosu, W., Yeboah, K., Rangalyan, G., Atuahene, K., Lowndes, C., Stover, J. et al. (2009). Modes of HIV transmission in West Africa: Analysis of the distribution of new HIV infections in Ghana and re commendations for prevention. Accra: Ghana AIDS Commission.
 Crandall, C. S., & Moriarty, D. (1995) Physical illness stigma and so cial rejection. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 67-83.
 Fields, E. L., Bogart, L. M., Galvan, F. H., Wagner, G. J., Klein, D. J., & Schuster, M. A. (2013) Association of discrimination related trau ma with sexual risk among HIV positive African American men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 103, 875-880.
 Li, M. J., DiStefano, A., Mouttapa, M., & Gill, J. K. (2013) Biasmoti vated bullying and psychosocial problems: Implications for HIV risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Care, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2013.811210
 Ministry of Health (2008). National guidelines for the development and the implementation of HIV counseling and testing. Accra: Ministry of Health, Ghana Health Service, National AIDS Control Program.
 Neuman, M., & Obermeyer, C. M. (2013) Experiences of stigma, dis crimination, care and support among people living with HIV: A four country study. AIDS and Behavior, 17, 1796-1808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461 013 0432 1
 Nzambi, K., Bevalot, M., Till, H., & Dzokoto, A. (2009). Study on stig ma and discriminatory attitudes and perceptions in Accra and Tema Metropolis in Ghana: How does the general adult population see most at risk populations and how do most at risk populations (MARP) see themselves in the context of HIV/AIDS in Ghana? Accra German Technical Cooperation.
 Schadé, A., van Grootheest, G., & Smit, J. H. (2013). HIV infected men tal health patients: Characteristics and comparison with HIV infected patients from the general population and non infected mental health patients. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 35.
 UNAIDS (2010). United Nations general assembly special session on HIV/AIDS 09: Monitoring the declaration of commitment on HIV/ AIDS. Guidelines on construction on core indicators, 2010 reporting. Geneva: UNAIDS.
 Varni, S. E., Miller, C. T., & Solomon, S. E. (2012) Sexual behavior as a function of stigma and coping with stigma among people with HIV/AIDS in rural New England. AIDS and Behavior, 16, 2330-2339.