JBiSE  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2011
Material properties and characterizations of cross-linked electro-spinning raspberry ketone incorporated polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin fibrous scaffolds
The properties of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (PVA/GE) nanofibers have been previously investigated as a function of the processing parameters such as the ra-tios of PVA and GE, electrical field and tip-to-collector distance during the electro-spinning process, in this study, the properties of the electro-spinning PVA/GE nanofibers were examined when different solution feed rates were used to create the fibrous scaffold. The optimal conditions for the PVA/GE fibrous scaf-fold were determined to be a PVA/GE blend ratio of 8/2, electrical field of 24 kV, tip-to-collector distance of 10 cm and speed rate of 1 ml.h-1. Using these con-ditions, Raspberry ketone (RK) was incorporated into PVA/GE fibrous scaffolds and their microstruc-ture and material properties were characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD techniques. When the incorpo-rated RK and PVA/GE fibrous scaffolds were cross-linked, the tensile strength and water-resistant ability increased at increasing cross-linking time. However, in the in vitro analysis, a longer cross-linking time was shown to increase its cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic-ity of RKPVA/GE-8 fibrous scaffold was evaluated based on a cell proliferation study by culturing L-929 fibroblast cell on the fibrous scaffold for 1, 3 and 5 days. In these experiments, cell expansion was ob-served and the cells spread during the entire cell cul-ture time.

Cite this paper
nullBao, T. , Franco, R. and Lee, B. (2011) Material properties and characterizations of cross-linked electro-spinning raspberry ketone incorporated polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin fibrous scaffolds. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 4, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2011.41001.
[1]   Andreas, G. and Joachim, H.W. (2007) Electrospinning: A fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 46, 5670-5703. doi:10.1002/anie.200604646

[2]   Supaphol, P. and Chuangchote, S. (2008) On the electrospinning of poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofiber mats: A revisit. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 108, 969-978. doi:10.1002/app.27664

[3]   Bhattarai, N., Edmondson, D., Veiseh, O., Matsen, F.A. and Zhang, M. (2005) Electrospun chitosan-based nanofibers and their cellular compatibility. Biomaterials, 26, 6176-6184.

[4]   Nguyen, T.H., Lee, K.H. and Lee, B.T. (2010) Fabrication of Ag nano particles dispersed in pva nanowires mats by microwave irradiation and electro-spinning. Materials Science and Engineering C, 30, 944-950. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2010.04.012

[5]   Puppi, D., Piras, A.M., Detta, N., Dinucci, D. and Chiellini, F. (2010) Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibrous meshes for the controlled release of retinoic acid. Acta Biomaterialia, 6, 1258-1268.

[6]   John, M.J. and Thomas, S. (2008) Biofibres and biocomposites. Carbohydrate Polymers, 71, 343-364.

[7]   Li, W.J., Laurencin, C.T., Caterson, E.J., Tuan, R.S. and Ko, F.K. (2002) Electrospun nanofibrous structure: A novel scaffold for tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 60, 613-621.

[8]   Chong, E.J., Phan, T.T., Lim, I.J., Zhang, Y.Z., Bay, B.H., Ramakrishna, S. and Lim, C.T. (2007) Evaluation of electrospun PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold for wound healing and layered dermal reconstitution. Acta Biomaterialia, 3, 321-330. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2007.01.002

[9]   Rujitanaroj, P., Pimpha, N. and Supaphol, P. (2008) Wound- dressing materials with antibacterial activity from electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing silver nanoparticles. Polymer, 49, 4723-4732.

[10]   Chena, J.P., Chang, G.Y. and Chen, J.K. (2008) Electrospun collagen/chitosan nanofibrous membrane as wound dressing. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 313, 183-188. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.08.021

[11]   Zhang, Y.Z., Venugopal, J., Huang, Z.M., Lim, C.T. and Ramakrishna, S. (2006) Crosslinking of the electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Polymer, 47, 2911-2917.

[12]   Awad, H.A., Wickham, M.Q., Leddy, H.A., Gimble, J.M. and Guilak, F. (2004) Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived adult stem cells in agarose, alginate, and gelatin scaffolds. Biomaterials, 25, 3211-3222. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.10.045

[13]   Gaihre, B., Khil, M.S., Lee, D.R. and Kim, H.Y. (2009) Gelatin-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as carrier system: Drug loading and in vitro drug release study. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 365, 180-189. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.08.020

[14]   Huang, Z.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Ramakrishna, S. and Lim, C.T. (2004) Electrospinning and mechanical characterization of gelatin nanofibers. Polymer, 45, 5361-5368. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2004.04.005

[15]   Zeng, H., Du, Y., Yu, J., Huang, R. and Zhang, L., (2001) Preparation and characterization of chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend fibers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 80, 2558-2565.

[16]   Yang, D.Z., Long, Y.H. and Nie, J. (2008) Release of lysozyme from electrospun PVA/lysozyme-gelatin scaffolds. Frontiers of Materials Science in China, 2, 261- 265. doi:10.1007/s11706-008-0053-1

[17]   Ngawhirunpat, T., Opanasopit, P., Rojanarata, T., Akkaramongkolporn, P., Ruktanonchai, U. and Supaphol, P. (2009) Development of Meloxicam-loaded electrospun polyvinyl alcohol mats as a transdermal therapeutic agent. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 14, 70-79.

[18]   Moscatoa, S., .Mattiia, L, D’Alessandroa, D., Casconeb, M.G., Lazzerib, L., Serinoa, L.P., Dolfia, A. and Bernardini, N. (2008) Interaction of human gingival fibroblasts with PVA/gelatine sponges. Micron, 39, 569-579. doi:10.1016/j.micron.2007.06.016

[19]   Pham, Q.P., Sharma, U. and Mikos, A.G. (2006) Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering applications. Tissue Engineering, 12, 1197-1211. doi:10.1089/ten.2006.12.1197

[20]   Chie, M., Yurie, S., Mariko, H., Shintaro, I., Takahiro, T. and Hiromichi, O. (2005) Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Science, 11, 194-204.

[21]   Yang, D., Li, Y. and Nie, J. (2007) Preparation of gelatin/PVA nanofibers and their potential application in controlled release of drugs. Carbohydrate Polymers, 69, 538-543. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.01.008

[22]   Chiellini, E., Cinelli, P., Fernandes, G.E., Kenawy, E.S. and Lazzeri, A. (2001) Gelatin-based blends and composites. Morphological and thermal mechanical characterization. Biomacromolecules, 2, 806- 811.

[23]   Linh, N.T.B., Min, Y.K., Song, H.Y. and Lee, B.T. (2010) Fabrication of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin nanofiber composites and evaluation of their material properties. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 95B, 184-191. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.31701

[24]   Hiep, N.T. and Lee, B.T. (2010) Electro-spinning of PLGA/PCL blends for tissue engineering and their biocompatibility. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21, 1969-1978.

[25]   Han, J., Chen, T.X., White, C.J.B. and Zhu, L.M. (2009) Electrospun shikonin-loaded PCL/PTMC composite fiber mats with potential biomedical applications. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 382, 215-221. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.07.027

[26]   Jayakrishnan, A. and Jameela, S.R. (1996) Glutaraldehyde as a fixative in bioprostheses and drug delivery matrices. Biomaterials, 17, 471-484.

[27]   Carroll, P.V. (2001) Treatment with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in critical illness. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 15, 435-451. doi:10.1053/beem.2001.0162

[28]   Harada, N., Okajima, K., Narimatsu, N., Kurihara and H., Nakagata, N. (2008) Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 18, 335-344. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2008.01.005