JWARP  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2011
Effect of Free Cells and Additional Supporting Material on Performance of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Pellet Reactor to Treat NH4-N Contaminated Groundwater
ABSTRACT
To study the effect of free cells (suspended bacteria) on performance of entrapped bacteria system (i.e. polyethylene glycol (PEG)-pellet reactor) to treat NH4-N contaminated groundwater, two PEG-pellet reactors with a lot of free cells - Reactor A containing PEG-pellet and Reactor B containing PEG-pellet and supporting material - and the another control reactor without free cells (Reactor C) were set-up. Three reactors were operated under various NH4-N concentrations (40-60 mg/L) and various temperatures (5-25ºC). The results show that the free cells effected on the NH4-N removal efficiency significantly. The free cells developed to be a biofilm layer on the pellet surface for Reactor A, the biofilm layer caused the decreasing NH4-N diffusion and incomplete nitrification eventually. On the other hand, most free cells attached to the supporting material for Reactor B. Although the NH4-N could diffuse properly, the free cells consuming acetate caused the added acetate was insufficient for complete denitrification. However, the results suggest that the supporting material could reduce the effect of free cells on the reactor performance at low temperature as indicated by 1) higher efficiency and 2) lower activation energy (Ea) for nitrification and denitrification in Reactor B than Reactor A.

Cite this paper
nullW. Khanitchaidecha, T. Sumino and F. Kazama, "Effect of Free Cells and Additional Supporting Material on Performance of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Pellet Reactor to Treat NH4-N Contaminated Groundwater," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2011, pp. 12-21. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.31002.
References
[1]   N. R. Warner, J. Levy, K. Harpp and F. Farruggia, “Drinking Water Quality in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley: A Survey and Assessment of Selected Controlling Site Characteristics,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2008, pp. 321-334. doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0238-1

[2]   M. C. Kundu and B. Mandal, “Assessment of Potential Hazards of Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Groundwater of an Intensively Cultivated District in West Bengal, India,” Environmental Monitoring Assessment, Vol. 152, No. 1-4, 2009, pp. 97-103. doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0299-1

[3]   H. H. Comly, “Cyanosis in Infants Caused by Nitrates in Well Water,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 257, No. 22, 1987, pp. 2788-2792.

[4]   D. Forman, S. Al-Dabbagh and R. Doll, “Nitrates, Nitrites and Gastric Cancer in Great Britain,” Nature, Vol. 313, No. 6004, 1985, pp. 620-625. doi:10.1038/313620a0

[5]   D. T. Ha, R. Kusumoto, T. Koyama, T. Fuji and K. Furukawa, “Evaluation of the Swim-Bed Attached-Growth Process for Nitrification of Hanoi Groundwater Containing High Levels of Iron,” Japanese Journal of Water Treatment Biology, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2005, pp. 181-192. doi:10.2521/jswtb.41.181

[6]   T. Stembal, M. Markic, N. Ribicic, F. Briski and L. Sipos, “Removal of Ammonia, Iron and Manganese from Grou- ndwaters of Northern Croatia-Pilot Plant Studies,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2005, pp. 327-335. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2004.01.006

[7]   J. Park, S. Lee, J. Lee and C. Lee, “Lab Scale Experiments for Permeable Reactive Barriers Against Contaminated Groundwater with Ammonium and Heavy Metals Using Clinoptilolite (01-29B),” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 65-79. doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00007-9

[8]   WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” 2nd Ed- ition, World Health Organisation, Geneva, 1996.

[9]   N. R. Khatiwada, S. Takizawa, T. V. N. Tran and M. Inoue, “Groundwater Contamination Assessment for Sustainable Water Supply in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 46, No. 9, 2002, pp. 147-154.

[10]   K. Pochana, J. Keller and P. Lant, “Model Development for Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1999, pp. 235-243. doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(98)00789-6

[11]   K. Chen, S. Lee, S. Chin and J. Houng, “Simultaneous Carbon-Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater Using Phosphorylated PVA-Immobilized Microorganisms,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1998, pp. 311- 320. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(98)00054-4

[12]   N. Hashimoto and T. Sumino, “Wastewater Treatment Using Activated Sludge Entrapped in Polyethylene Glycol Prepolymer,” Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, Vol. 86, No. 4, 1998, pp. 424-426. doi:10.1016/S0922-338X(99)89019-9

[13]   W. M. Rostron, D. C. Stuckey and A. A. Young, “Nitrification of High Strength Ammonia Wastewater: Comparative Study of Immobilisation Media,” Water Research, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1169-1178. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00365-1

[14]   C. Vogelsang, A. Susby and K. Ostgaard, “Functional Stability of Temperature-Compensated Nitrification in Domestic Wastewater Treatment Obtained with PVA-SBQ/ Alginate Gel Entrapment,” Water Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1997, pp. 1659-1664. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00009-2

[15]   V. Libman, B. Eliosov and Y. Argaman, “Feasibility St- udy of Complete Nitrogen Removal from Domestic Wa- stewater by Consequent Nitrification-Denitrification Using Immobilized Nitrifiers in Gel Beads,” Water Environment Research, Vol. 72, No. 1, 2000, pp. 40-49. doi:10.2175/106143000X137095

[16]   G. Cao, Q. Zhao, X. Sun and T. Zhang, “Integrated Nitrogen Removal in a Shell and Tube Co-Immobilized Cell Bioreactor,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 39, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1269-1273. doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00256-5

[17]   Z. Zhang, J. Zhu, J. King and W. Li, “A Two-Step Fed SBR for Treating Swine Manure,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2006, pp. 892-900. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2005.11.005

[18]   R. Blackburne, Z. Yuan and J. Keller, “Demonstration of Nitrogen Removal via Nitrite in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Treating Domestic Wastewater,” Water Research, Vol. 42, No. 8-9, 2008, pp. 2166-2176. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.11.029

[19]   W. Khanitchaidecha, T. Nakamura, T. Sumino and F. Kazama, “Performance of Intermittent Aeration Reactor on NH4-N Removal from Groundwater Resources,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 61, No. 12, 2010, pp. 3061-3069. doi:10.2166/wst.2010.247

[20]   T. Sumino, K. Isaka, H. Ikuta and B. Osman, “Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification Using Activated Sludge Entrapped in Polyethylene Glycol Prepolymer,” Japanese Journal Water Treatment Biology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2007, pp. 121-128.

[21]   American Public Health Association, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 19th Edition, Springfield, New York, 1995.

[22]   M. H. Schroth, J. D. Istok, G. T. Conner, M. R. Hyman, R. Haggerty and K. T. O. Reilly, “Spatial Variability in Situ Aerobic Respiration and Denitrification Rates in a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer,” Ground Water, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1998, pp. 924-937. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1998.tb02099.x

[23]   Metcalf and Eddy, “Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse,” 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 2004.

[24]   R. H. Wijffels, C. D. de Gooijer, S. Kortekaas and J. Tramper, “Growth and Substrate Consumption of Nitrobacter Agili Cells Immobilized in Carrageenan: Part 2. Model Evaluation,” Biotechnoloty and Bioengineering, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1991, pp. 232-240. doi:10.1002/bit.260380304

[25]   W. A. J. van Benthum, M. D. M. van Loosdrecht and J. J. Heijnen, “Control of Heterotrophic Layer Formation on Nitrifying Biofilms in a Biofilm Airlift Suspension Reactor,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1997, pp. 397-405. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19970220)53:4<397::AID-BIT7>3.0.CO;2-I

[26]   D. D. Forcht and W. Verstraete, “Biochemical Ecology of Nitrification and Denitrification [Soils],” Advances in Microbial Ecology (USA), Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, pp. 135-214.

[27]   R. Nogueira, L. F. Melo, U. Purkhold, S. Wuertz and M. Wagner, “Nitrifying and Heterotrophic Population Dynamics in Biofilm Reactors: Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time and the Presence of Organic Carbon,” Water Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2002, pp. 469-481. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00229-9

[28]   E. J. T. M. Leenen, A. M. G. A. van Boxtel, G. England, J. Tramper and R. H. Wijffels, “Reduced Temperature Sensitivity of Immobilized Nitrobacter Agili Cells Ca- used by Diffusion Limitation,” Enzyme and Microbial T- echnology, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1997, pp. 573-580. doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(96)00214-1

 
 
Top