Quantum Physics Can Be Understood in Terms of Classical Thermodynamics

Author(s)
Tomofumi Miyashita

ABSTRACT

Quantum physics can be understood in terms of classical thermodynamics, which is already considered to be a complete field. However, inconsistencies in classical thermodynamics have been discovered in the area of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The use of samarium-doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes in SOFCs lowers the open-circuit voltage (OCV) below the Nernst voltage (Vth). The low OCV is calculated with Wagner’s equation, included in the Nernst-Planck equation, which is based on the first and second thermodynamic laws. Experimental and theoretical limitations of Wagner’s equation have been discovered. Considering the separation of the Boltzmann distribution and Maxwell’s Demon, only carrier species having sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy can contribute to current conduction, as determined by incorporating different constants in the definitions of the chemical and electrical potentials. This means that an additional thermodynamic law is needed. Furthermore, quantum physics can be explained by the additional thermodynamic law.

Quantum physics can be understood in terms of classical thermodynamics, which is already considered to be a complete field. However, inconsistencies in classical thermodynamics have been discovered in the area of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The use of samarium-doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes in SOFCs lowers the open-circuit voltage (OCV) below the Nernst voltage (Vth). The low OCV is calculated with Wagner’s equation, included in the Nernst-Planck equation, which is based on the first and second thermodynamic laws. Experimental and theoretical limitations of Wagner’s equation have been discovered. Considering the separation of the Boltzmann distribution and Maxwell’s Demon, only carrier species having sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy can contribute to current conduction, as determined by incorporating different constants in the definitions of the chemical and electrical potentials. This means that an additional thermodynamic law is needed. Furthermore, quantum physics can be explained by the additional thermodynamic law.

KEYWORDS

Boltzmann Distribution, Maxwell’s Demon, Wagner Equation, Nernst-Planck Equation, Additional Thermodynamic Law

Boltzmann Distribution, Maxwell’s Demon, Wagner Equation, Nernst-Planck Equation, Additional Thermodynamic Law

Cite this paper

nullT. Miyashita, "Quantum Physics Can Be Understood in Terms of Classical Thermodynamics,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2011, pp. 26-29. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.21005.

nullT. Miyashita, "Quantum Physics Can Be Understood in Terms of Classical Thermodynamics,"

References

[1] C. Wagner, “Beitrag zur Theorie des Anlaufvorgangs,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Vol. B41, 1933, p. 42.

[2] H. Rickert, “Electrochemistry of Solids - An Introduction”, Springer, Berlin, 1982.

[3] T. Miyashita, “Necessity of Verification of Leakage Currents Using Sm Doped Ceria Electrolytes in SOFCs,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 41, 2006, pp. 3183-3184. doi:10.1007/s10853-006-6371-8

[4] W. Lai and S. M. Haile, “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Mixed Conductors under a Chemical Potential Gradient: A Case Study of Pt|SDC|BSCF,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 10, 2008, pp. 865-883. doi:10.1039/b712473b

[5] W. Lai and S. M. Haile, “Impedance Spectroscopy as a Tool for Chemical and Electrochemical Analysis of Mixed Conductors: A Case Study of Ceria,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 88, No. 11, 2005, pp. 2979-2997. doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00740.x

[6] T. Miyashita, “The Limitations of Wagner’s Equation in Solid-State Electrochemistry,” ECS Transactions, Vol. 33, 2010, (will be published).

[7] T. Miyashita, “Fundamental Thermodynamic modifications in Wagner’s Equation in Solid State Electrochemistry,” ECS Transactions, Vol. 28, 2010, pp. 39-49. doi:10.1149/1.3502443

[8] T. Miyashita, “Empirical Equation about Open Circuit Voltage in SOFC,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 40, 2005, p. 6027. doi:10.1007/s10853-005-4560-5

[9] G. Grossing, “Derivation of the Schroedinger Equation and the Klein-Gordon Equation from First Principles,” Foundations of Physics Letters, Vol. 17, 2004, pp. 343-362. arXiv:quant-ph/0205047v6

[1] C. Wagner, “Beitrag zur Theorie des Anlaufvorgangs,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Vol. B41, 1933, p. 42.

[2] H. Rickert, “Electrochemistry of Solids - An Introduction”, Springer, Berlin, 1982.

[3] T. Miyashita, “Necessity of Verification of Leakage Currents Using Sm Doped Ceria Electrolytes in SOFCs,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 41, 2006, pp. 3183-3184. doi:10.1007/s10853-006-6371-8

[4] W. Lai and S. M. Haile, “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Mixed Conductors under a Chemical Potential Gradient: A Case Study of Pt|SDC|BSCF,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 10, 2008, pp. 865-883. doi:10.1039/b712473b

[5] W. Lai and S. M. Haile, “Impedance Spectroscopy as a Tool for Chemical and Electrochemical Analysis of Mixed Conductors: A Case Study of Ceria,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 88, No. 11, 2005, pp. 2979-2997. doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00740.x

[6] T. Miyashita, “The Limitations of Wagner’s Equation in Solid-State Electrochemistry,” ECS Transactions, Vol. 33, 2010, (will be published).

[7] T. Miyashita, “Fundamental Thermodynamic modifications in Wagner’s Equation in Solid State Electrochemistry,” ECS Transactions, Vol. 28, 2010, pp. 39-49. doi:10.1149/1.3502443

[8] T. Miyashita, “Empirical Equation about Open Circuit Voltage in SOFC,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 40, 2005, p. 6027. doi:10.1007/s10853-005-4560-5

[9] G. Grossing, “Derivation of the Schroedinger Equation and the Klein-Gordon Equation from First Principles,” Foundations of Physics Letters, Vol. 17, 2004, pp. 343-362. arXiv:quant-ph/0205047v6