Physical Modeling of the Enzymatic Glucose-Fuelled Fuel Cells

Affiliation(s)

SciRCon (Scientific, Research, Consulting), Los Angeles, USA.

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ort Braude College, Karmiel, Israel.

SciRCon (Scientific, Research, Consulting), Los Angeles, USA.

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ort Braude College, Karmiel, Israel.

ABSTRACT

An enzymatic glucose biofuel cell uses glucose as fuel and enzymes as biocatalyst, to transform biochemical energy into electrical energy. An analytical modelling of an enzymatic biofuel cell should be used, while developing fuel cell, to estimate its various enzymatic parameters, to obtain the highest voltage feasibly. The analytical model was developed, and the open circuit voltage (OCV) calculated by the model for various parameters of the fuel cell is in agreement with the experimental results. The OCV is interpreted by using this model, based on theoretical consideration of ions transportation in the solution. The generation and consumptions of the ions near the electrodes were defined in the model by exponential approximations, with different depletion coefficients. The model reveals that increasing the rates of hydrogen ions generation and (or) consumption by enzyme or chemical reactions leads to a higher value of OCV. The model points that the OCV is saturated with a glucose concentration and increased logarithmically with a surface enzyme concentration. Hence, a low glucose concentration is sufficient to obtain adequate OCV, on the one hand, but it can be increased by increasing electrode surface porosity, on the other hand. This model can be expanded to include time and close circuit voltage.

An enzymatic glucose biofuel cell uses glucose as fuel and enzymes as biocatalyst, to transform biochemical energy into electrical energy. An analytical modelling of an enzymatic biofuel cell should be used, while developing fuel cell, to estimate its various enzymatic parameters, to obtain the highest voltage feasibly. The analytical model was developed, and the open circuit voltage (OCV) calculated by the model for various parameters of the fuel cell is in agreement with the experimental results. The OCV is interpreted by using this model, based on theoretical consideration of ions transportation in the solution. The generation and consumptions of the ions near the electrodes were defined in the model by exponential approximations, with different depletion coefficients. The model reveals that increasing the rates of hydrogen ions generation and (or) consumption by enzyme or chemical reactions leads to a higher value of OCV. The model points that the OCV is saturated with a glucose concentration and increased logarithmically with a surface enzyme concentration. Hence, a low glucose concentration is sufficient to obtain adequate OCV, on the one hand, but it can be increased by increasing electrode surface porosity, on the other hand. This model can be expanded to include time and close circuit voltage.

Cite this paper

V. Rubin and L. Mor, "Physical Modeling of the Enzymatic Glucose-Fuelled Fuel Cells,"*Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science*, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 218-226. doi: 10.4236/aces.2013.34028.

V. Rubin and L. Mor, "Physical Modeling of the Enzymatic Glucose-Fuelled Fuel Cells,"

References

[1] Z. Rubin and L. Mor, “Electrode Resistance Dependence on Alkaline Glucose Fuel Cell Electrolyte Concentration,” Proceedings of the International Conference of Fundamentals and Developments of Fuel Cells, Nancy, December 2008, pp. 115-116.

[2] E. Bubis, L. Mor, N. Sabag, Z. Rubin, U. Vaysban, et al., “Electrical Characterization of a Glucose-Fueled Alkaline Fuel Cell,” Proceedings of the 4th International ASME Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FuelCell2006, Irvine, Vol. 2006, 2006, 8 p.

[3] L. Mor, Z. Rubin and P. Schechner, “Measuring Open Circuit Voltage in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell Operated as a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008, Article ID: 014503.

[4] V. (Zeev) Rubin and L. Mor, “Physical Models of the Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell,” 221st ECS Meeting Seattle, Washington, 6-10 May 2012, p. 61.

[5] L. Mor and V. Rubin, “Experimental and Theoretical Considerations of Electrolyte Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell,” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 111-117.

[6] J. Ge, R. Schirhagl and R. N. Zare, “Glucose-Driven Fuel Cell Constructed from Enzymes and Filter Paper,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 88, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1283-1286. http://dx.doi.org/10.10

21/ed100967j

[7] I. Ivanov, T. Vidacovic-Koch and K. Sundmacher, “Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modelling,” Energies, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2010, pp. 803-846. http://dx.doi.org/10.

3390/en3040803

[8] A. S. Bedekar, J. J. Feng, S. Krishanamoorthy, K. G. Lim, G. T. R. Palmore and S. O. Sundaram, “Limitation in Microfludic Biofuel Cells,” Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 195, No. 3, 2008, pp. 256-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00986440701569036

[9] E. Kjeang, D. Sinton and D. A. Harrigton, “Strategic Enzyme Patterning for Microfluidic Biofuel Cells,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 158, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-12.

[10] S. W. Jeon, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, et al., “Optimization of Cell Conditions for Enzymatic Fuel Cell Using Statistical Analysis,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2008, pp. 338-343.

[11] D. J. Glycys and S. Banta, “Metabolic Control Analisis of an Enzymatic Biofuel Cell,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 102, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1624-1635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.22199

[12] A. S. Bedekar, J. J. Feng, K. Lim, S. Krishanamoorthy, G. T. R. Palmore and S. Sundaram, “Computational Analysis of Microfludic Biofuel Cells,” Austin, TX, United, 2004.

[13] A. Zebda, C. Innocent, et al., “Enzyme-Based Microfluidic Biofuel Cell to Generate Micropower,” In: C. M. Drapcho, N. P. Nhuan, T. H. Walker, Eds., Biofuels Engineering. Process Technology, Graw Hill, New York, 2008, pp. 574-576.

[14] R. P. Pinto, B. Sprinivasan, et al., “A Two-Population Bio-Electrochemical Model of Microbial Fuel Cell,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 4, 2010, pp. 5256-5265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.biortech.2010.01.122

[15] A. Z. Weber and T. Ikeda, “Modeling Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 104, No. 10, 2004, pp. 4679-4726.

[16] P. N. Barlett, et al., “Modeling Biosensor Responses,” Bioelectrochemistry, Wiley, England, 2008, pp. 267-325.

[17] Enzyme Kinetics. web.virginia.edu/Heidi/…/chp14.htm

[18] G. S. Erzinger, M. M. Silveira, M. Vitolo and R. Jonas, “Determination of Glucose-Fructose Oxidoreductase Activity in Whole Cells,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 1, No. 12, 1996, pp. 22-24.

[19] A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner, “Electrochemical Methods,” 2nd Edition, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001.

[20] Jens Hagen, “Industrial Catalysis: A Practical Approach,” 2nd Edition, WILEY-VCH, 2006.

[21] J. Kulys, L. Tetianec and P. Schneider, “Specificity and Kinetic Parameters of Recombinant Microdochium nivale carbohydrate Oxidase,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, Vol. 13, No. 4-6, 2001, pp. 95-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1381-1177(00)00233-2

[22] J.-X. Shi and X.-En Zhang, “Improvement of Homogeneity of Analytical Biodevices by Gene Manipulation,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2004, pp. 632-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020796f

[23] V. Tegoulia, B. B. Gnedenko and A. D. Ryabov, “Ferricenium Salts Instead of Dioxygen in Glucose Oxidase Catalysis,” Biochemistry and molecular biology, International, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1993, p. 769.

[24] N. Eryomin, L. A. Zhukovskaya and R. V. Mikhailova, “Effect of Salts and Triton X-100 on Ultrafiltration Purification and Properties of Extracellular Glucose Oxidase,” Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2009, p. 248.

[25] E. L. Cussler, “Diffusion—Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984.

[1] Z. Rubin and L. Mor, “Electrode Resistance Dependence on Alkaline Glucose Fuel Cell Electrolyte Concentration,” Proceedings of the International Conference of Fundamentals and Developments of Fuel Cells, Nancy, December 2008, pp. 115-116.

[2] E. Bubis, L. Mor, N. Sabag, Z. Rubin, U. Vaysban, et al., “Electrical Characterization of a Glucose-Fueled Alkaline Fuel Cell,” Proceedings of the 4th International ASME Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FuelCell2006, Irvine, Vol. 2006, 2006, 8 p.

[3] L. Mor, Z. Rubin and P. Schechner, “Measuring Open Circuit Voltage in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell Operated as a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008, Article ID: 014503.

[4] V. (Zeev) Rubin and L. Mor, “Physical Models of the Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell,” 221st ECS Meeting Seattle, Washington, 6-10 May 2012, p. 61.

[5] L. Mor and V. Rubin, “Experimental and Theoretical Considerations of Electrolyte Conductivity in Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell,” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 111-117.

[6] J. Ge, R. Schirhagl and R. N. Zare, “Glucose-Driven Fuel Cell Constructed from Enzymes and Filter Paper,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 88, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1283-1286. http://dx.doi.org/10.10

21/ed100967j

[7] I. Ivanov, T. Vidacovic-Koch and K. Sundmacher, “Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modelling,” Energies, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2010, pp. 803-846. http://dx.doi.org/10.

3390/en3040803

[8] A. S. Bedekar, J. J. Feng, S. Krishanamoorthy, K. G. Lim, G. T. R. Palmore and S. O. Sundaram, “Limitation in Microfludic Biofuel Cells,” Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 195, No. 3, 2008, pp. 256-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00986440701569036

[9] E. Kjeang, D. Sinton and D. A. Harrigton, “Strategic Enzyme Patterning for Microfluidic Biofuel Cells,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 158, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-12.

[10] S. W. Jeon, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, et al., “Optimization of Cell Conditions for Enzymatic Fuel Cell Using Statistical Analysis,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2008, pp. 338-343.

[11] D. J. Glycys and S. Banta, “Metabolic Control Analisis of an Enzymatic Biofuel Cell,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 102, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1624-1635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.22199

[12] A. S. Bedekar, J. J. Feng, K. Lim, S. Krishanamoorthy, G. T. R. Palmore and S. Sundaram, “Computational Analysis of Microfludic Biofuel Cells,” Austin, TX, United, 2004.

[13] A. Zebda, C. Innocent, et al., “Enzyme-Based Microfluidic Biofuel Cell to Generate Micropower,” In: C. M. Drapcho, N. P. Nhuan, T. H. Walker, Eds., Biofuels Engineering. Process Technology, Graw Hill, New York, 2008, pp. 574-576.

[14] R. P. Pinto, B. Sprinivasan, et al., “A Two-Population Bio-Electrochemical Model of Microbial Fuel Cell,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 4, 2010, pp. 5256-5265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.biortech.2010.01.122

[15] A. Z. Weber and T. Ikeda, “Modeling Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 104, No. 10, 2004, pp. 4679-4726.

[16] P. N. Barlett, et al., “Modeling Biosensor Responses,” Bioelectrochemistry, Wiley, England, 2008, pp. 267-325.

[17] Enzyme Kinetics. web.virginia.edu/Heidi/…/chp14.htm

[18] G. S. Erzinger, M. M. Silveira, M. Vitolo and R. Jonas, “Determination of Glucose-Fructose Oxidoreductase Activity in Whole Cells,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 1, No. 12, 1996, pp. 22-24.

[19] A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner, “Electrochemical Methods,” 2nd Edition, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001.

[20] Jens Hagen, “Industrial Catalysis: A Practical Approach,” 2nd Edition, WILEY-VCH, 2006.

[21] J. Kulys, L. Tetianec and P. Schneider, “Specificity and Kinetic Parameters of Recombinant Microdochium nivale carbohydrate Oxidase,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, Vol. 13, No. 4-6, 2001, pp. 95-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1381-1177(00)00233-2

[22] J.-X. Shi and X.-En Zhang, “Improvement of Homogeneity of Analytical Biodevices by Gene Manipulation,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 3, 2004, pp. 632-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020796f

[23] V. Tegoulia, B. B. Gnedenko and A. D. Ryabov, “Ferricenium Salts Instead of Dioxygen in Glucose Oxidase Catalysis,” Biochemistry and molecular biology, International, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1993, p. 769.

[24] N. Eryomin, L. A. Zhukovskaya and R. V. Mikhailova, “Effect of Salts and Triton X-100 on Ultrafiltration Purification and Properties of Extracellular Glucose Oxidase,” Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2009, p. 248.

[25] E. L. Cussler, “Diffusion—Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984.