JBiSE  Vol.6 No.10 , October 2013
Measurement of two new indicators of cardiac reserve in humans, rats, rabbits, and dogs
ABSTRACT
Background: It is difficult to observe the phenomena of cardiac fatigue under a low or moderate workload test, and little was reported about cardiac fatigue under a heavy workload test because of the potential risk (sudden death) of prolonged strenuous exercise. Animal experiments would be helpful to resolve this problem. The objective of this study was to obtain baseline data of two new indicators of cardiac reserve in rats, rabbits, and dogs. Methods: Ten New Zealand White rabbits (1. 5 to 2 kg, 4 females), 10 male Wistar rats (2 months old), and 10 Golden Retriever dogs (40 days old, 5 females) were included in this study. Phonocardiogram of each animal was recorded. The basic points concerning heart sound quantitative analysis were: 1) measuring the duration and the amplitude of relevant heart sound components; 2) calculating and analyzing relevant indicators based on the data obtained from the above measurements, including the ratio of diastolic to systolic duration (D/S) and the ratio of the amplitude of the first heart sound to the amplitude of the second heart sound (S1/S2). Results: The baseline data of D/S ratio and S1/S2 ratio in rats, rabbits, and dogs were obtained. The swimming time to exhaustion for rabbits was several to a dozen minutes, and for rats, several hours. Conclusion: D/S ratio has an important biological implication, which is a safe and easy indicator for evaluating the cardiac health status of both animals and humans.

Cite this paper
Zhao, Y. , Xu, D. , Xiao, S. , Yan, X. , Liu, J. , Liu, Y. , Luo, L. and Xia, G. (2013) Measurement of two new indicators of cardiac reserve in humans, rats, rabbits, and dogs. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 960-963. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.610118.
References
[1]   Ahmet, I., Wan, R., Mattson, M.P., Lakatta, E.G. and Talan, M.I. (2010) Chronic alternate-day fasting results in reduced diastolic compliance and diminished systolic reserve in rats. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 16, 843-853. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.05.007

[2]   Hu, T. and Desai, J.P. (2004) Soft-tissue material properties under large deformation: Strain rate effect. Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, San Francisco, 1-5 September 2004, 2758-2761.

[3]   Frazier, S.K., Moser, D.K. and Stone, K.S. (2001) Cardiac power output during transition from mechanical to spontaneous ventilation in canines. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 15, 23-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005082-200101000-00004

[4]   Hansen, P.B., Luisada, A.A., Miletich, D.J. and Albrecht, R.F. (1989) Phonocardiography as a monitor of cardiac performance during anesthesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 68, 385-387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/00000539-198903000-00037

[5]   Bombardini, T., Gemignani, V., Bianchini, E., Venneri, L., Petersen, C., Pasanisi, E., Pratali, L., Pianelli, M., Faita, F., Giannoni, M., Arpesella, G. and Picano, E. (2008) Arterial pressure changes monitoring with a new precordial noninvasive sensor. Cardiovasc Ultrasound, 21, 41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-7120-6-41

[6]   Hsieh, B.P., Unver, K., McNulty, E. and Schiller, N.B. (2010) The amplitude ratio of the first to second heart sound is reduced in left ventricular systolic dysfunction. International Journal of Cardiology, 145, 133-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.06.060

[7]   Abe, M., Tomiyama, H., Yoshida, H. and Doba, N. (2000) Diastolic fractional flow reserve to assess the functional severity of moderate coronary artery stenoses: Comparison with fractional flow reserve and coronary flow velocity reserve. Circulation, 102, 2365-2370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.102.19.2365

[8]   Hochachka, P.W. and Beatty, C.L. (2003) Patterns of control of maximum metabolic rate in humans. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 136, 215-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00195-8

[9]   Xiao, S., Guo, X., Sun, X. and Xiao, Z. (2002) A relative value method for measuring and evaluating cardiac reserve. http://www.biomedical-engineering-online.com/content/1/1/6

[10]   Lin, X., Xiao, S.Z., Zhou, Q., Wu, X.R., Xiao, Z.F., Guo, X.M., Lu, D.L., Zhao, W.R., Wu, X.J., Yan, X.B., Zha, Y.X. and Liu, J.M. (2013) Multi-center pragmatic studies evaluating the time indicator of cardiac perfusion reserve. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 1-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2013.61001

[11]   Fraser, G.E., Luke, R., Thompson, S., Smith, H., Carter, S. and Sharpe, N. (1995) Comparison of echocardiographic variables between type I diabetics and normal controls. American Journal of Cardiology, 75, 141-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(00)80063-6

[12]   Koestenberger, M., Friedberg, M.K., Ravekes, W. and Nestaas, E. (2012) Non-invasive imaging for congenital heart disease: Recent innovations in transthoracic echocardiography. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-9880.S8-002

[13]   Alkon, J., Humpl, T., Manlhiot, C., McCrindle, B.W., Reyes, J.T. and Friedberg, M.K. (2010) Usefulness of the right ventricular systolic to diastolic duration ratio to predict functional capacity and survival in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology, 106, 430-436.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.03.048

 
 
Top