T. M. Brasky, A. K. Darke, X. Song, C. M. Tangen, P. J. Goodman, I. M. Thompson, et al., “Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 105, No. 15, 2013, pp. 1132-1141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt174
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Data & Sta tistics, 2013.
 T. M. Brasky, C. Till, E. White, et al., “Serum Phosphol ipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 173, No. 12, 2011, pp. 1429-1439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr027
 F. L. Crowe, N. E. Allen, P. N. Appleby, K. Overvad, I. V. Aardestrup, N. F. Johnsen, et al., “Fatty Acid Compo sition of Plasma Phospholipids and Risk of Prostate Can cer in a Case-Control Analysis Nested within the Euro pean Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutri tion,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1353-1363.
 S. L. Spruance, J. E. Reid, M. Grace and M. Samore, “Minireview: Hazard Ratio in Clinical Trials,” Antim icrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 48, No. 8, 2004, pp. 2787-2792.
 B. S. Peskin, “Why Fish Oil Fails to Prevent or Improve CVD: A 21st Century Analysis,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 9A, 2013, pp. 76-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.49A1013
 J. W. Farquhar and E. H. Ahrens Jr., “Effects of Dietary Fats on Human Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Patterns,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 42, No. 5, 1963, pp. 675-685.
 P. S. Patel, S. J. Sharp, E. J. Jansen, et al., “Fatty Acids Measured in Plasma and Erythrocyte-Membrane Phos pholipids and Derived by Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Risk of New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk Cohort,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1214-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29182
 M. Plourde, R. Chouinard-Watkins, M. Vandal, Y. Zhang, P. Lawrence, J. T. Brenna, et al., “Plasma Incorporation, Apparent Retroconversion and β-Oxidation of 13C-Doco sahexaenoic Acid in the Elderly,” Nutrition & Metabo lism, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1-9.
 D. Lemaitre-Delaunay, C. Pachiaudi, M. Laville, J. Pou sin, M. Armstrong and Michel Lagarde, “Blood Compartmental Metabolism of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Humans after Ingestion of a Single Dose of [13C] DHA in Phosphatidylcholine,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 40, 1999, pp. 1867-1874. www.jlr.org/content/40/10/1867.full?related-urls=yes&legid=jlr;40/10/1867
 B. S. Peskin and M. J. Carter, “Chronic Cellular Hypoxia as the Prime Cause of Cancer: What Is the De-Oxygena ting Role of Adulterated and Improper Ratios of Polyun saturated Fatty Acids When Incorporated into Cell Mem branes?” Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 70, No. 2, 2008, pp. 298-304. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17656037 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2007.05.033
 O. Warburg, “The Metabolism of Carcinoma Cells,” The Journal of Cancer Research, Vol. 9, 1925, pp. 148-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/jcr.1925.148
 O. Warburg, “On the Origin of Cancer Cells,” Science, Vol. 123, No. 3191, 1956, pp. 309-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.123.3191.309
 I. M. Campbell, D. N. Crozier and R. B. Caton, “Abnor mal Fatty Acid Composition and Impaired Oxygen Supply in Cystic Fibrosis Patients,” Pediatrics, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1976, pp. 480-486. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1264543
 A. Turaka, et al., “Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle pO2 (P/M pO2) Ratio Predicts for Biochemical Failure in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Result,” In ternational Journal of Radiation Oncology, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2012, pp. e433-e439. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985947
 I. B. King, A. R. Kristal, S. Schaffer, M. Thornquist and G. E. Goodman, “Serum Trans-Fatty Acids Are Associ ated with Risk of Prostate Cancer in β-Carotene and Retinol Efficiency Trial,” Cancer Epidemiology, Bio markers & Prevention, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2005, pp. 988-992.
 N. Combe, A. Judde, C. Billeaud, C. Boue, F. Turon, B. Entressangler, et al., “Distribution of Dietary Trans Iso mers of Essential Fatty Acids in Blood Lipid Classes,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1997, p. 213.
 P. E. Wainwright, Y. S. Huang, B. Bulman-Fleming, D. D. Dalby, D. E. Mills, P. Redden, et al., “The Effects of Dietary n-3/n-6 Ratio on Brain Development in the Mouse: A Dose Response Study with Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids,” Lipids, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1992, pp. 98-103.
 M. L. Gurr, “Dietary Fatty Acids with Trans Unsaturation,” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1996, pp. 259-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR19960014
 S. K. Abbott, P. L. Else and A. J. Hulbert, “Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of Rat Skeletal Muscle Is Most Responsive to the Balance of Dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2010, pp. 522-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509992133
 The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group, M. C. Roncaglioni, M. Tombesi, F. Avanzini, S. Barlera, V. Caimi, P. Longoni, I. Marzona, V. Milani, M. G. Silletta, G. Tognoni and R. Marchioli, “n-3 Fatty Acids in Pa tients with Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 368, No. 19, 2013, pp. 1800-1808. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23656645
 E. Topol and Heartwire, “No Benefit of Fish Oil in High Risk Patients,” 2013.
 J. F. Quinn, R. Raman, R. G. Thomas, K. Yurko-Mauro, E. B. Nelson, C. Van Dyck, et al., “Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Cognitive Decline in Alz heimer Disease: A Randomized Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 304, No. 17, 2010, pp. 1903-1911. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1510
 AREDS2 Research Group, “Lutein + Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degen eration: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Randomized Clinical Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 309, No. 19, 2013, pp. 2005 2015.
 R. S. Chapkin, V. A. Ziboh, C. L. Marcelo and J. J. Voor hees, “Metabolism of Essential Fatty Acids by Human Epidermal Enzyme Preparations: Evidence of Chain Elongation,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 27, No. 9, 1986, pp. 945-954. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3097227
 A. Anderson, A. Sjodin, A. Hedman, R. Olsson and B. Vessby, et al., “Fatty Acid Profile of Skeletal Muscle Phospholipids in Trained and Untrained Young Men,” American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinological Me tabolism, Vol. 279, No. 4, 2000, pp. E744-E751.
 M. B. Veirord, D. S. Tjelle and P. Laake, “Diet and Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma: A Prospective Study of 50,757 Norwegian Men and Women,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 71, No. 4, 1997, pp. 600-604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970516)71:4<600::AID-IJC15>3.0.CO;2-F
 E. L. Linos, S. M. Swetter, M. G. Cockburn, G. A. Cold itz and C. A. Clark, “Increasing Burden of Melanoma in the United States,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 129, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1666-1674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2008.423
 M. P. Purdue, et al., “Recent Trends in Incidence of Cu taneous Melanoma among U.S. Caucasian Young Adults,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 128, No. 12, 2008, pp. 2905-2908.
 M. Stones, “China to Overtake Western Europe in EPA & DHA Oil Consumption,” 2011.
 W. E. Lands, A. Morris and B. Libelt, “Quantitative Ef fects of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fats on the Composition of Fatty Acids in Rat Tissues,” Lipids, Vol. 25, No. 9, 1990, pp. 505-516.
 P. Griffini, O. Fehres, L. Klieverik, I. M. Vogels, W. Tig chelaar, S. M. Smorenburg, et al., “Dietary Ω-3 Polyun saturated Fatty Acids Promote Colon Carcinoma Metas tasis in Rat Liver,” Cancer Research, Vol. 58, No. 15, 1998, pp. 3312-3319. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9699661
 J. Cody, “Link between Fish Oil and Increased Risk of Colon Cancer in Mice,” Medical News Today, 2010. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/203683.php
 H. L. Woodworth, S. J. McCaskey, D. M. Duriancik, J. F. Clinthorne, I. M. Langolhr, E. M. Gardner, et al., “Dieta ry Fish Oil Alters T Lymphocyte Cell Populations and Exacerbates Disease in a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Colitis,” Cancer Research, Vol. 70, No. 20, 2010, pp. 7960-7969.
 A. Mannini, N. Kerstin, L. Calorini, G. Mugnai and S. Ruggieri, “Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids En hance Metastatic Dissemination of Murine T Lymphoma Cells,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 107, No. 7, 2009, pp. 958-961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509359139
 K. Grens, “Vitamin B and Fish Oil Fail to Prevent Can cer,” 2012.
 V. A. Andreeva, M. Touvier, E. Kesse-Guyot, C. Julia, P. Galan and S. Hercberg, “B Vitamin and/or ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Cancer: Ancillary Findings from the Supplementation with Folate, Vitamins B6 and and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) Randomi zed Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 172, No. 7, 2012, pp. 540-547.
 “How Asbestos Causes Cancer: Mystery Unraveled,” Me dical News Today, 2010.
 H. Yang, Z. Rivera, S. Jube, M. Nasu, P. Bertino, C. Goparaju, et al., “Programmed Necrosis Induced by As bestos in Human Mesothelial Cells Causes High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Release and Resultant Inflamma tion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Vol. 107, No. 28, 2010, pp. 12611-12616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006542107
 F. Balkwill, et al., “Smoldering and Polarized Inflamma tion in the Initiation and Promotion of Malignant Disea se,” Cancer Cell, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2005, pp. 211-217.
 C. Lewis and J. Pollard, “Distinct Role of Macrophages in Different Tumor Microenvironments,” Cancer Re search, Vol. 66, No. 2, 2006, pp. 605-612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4005
 K. E. de Visser, A. Eichten, and L. M. Coussens, “Para doxical Roles of the Immune System during Cancer De velopment,” Nature Reviews Cancer, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 24-37.
 “The Incidence of Prostate Cancer Is 25 Times Higher in Australia and New Zealand than in South-Central Asia,” 2013. www.wcrf.org/cancer_statistics/cancer_facts/prostate-cancer-worldwide.php
 N. M Attar-Bashi, K. Orzeszko, R. F. Slocombe and A. J. Sinclair, “Lipids and FA Analysis of Canine Prostate Tissue,” Lipids, Vol. 38, No. 6, 2003, pp. 665-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-003-1112-y
 C. P. Burns and A. A. Spector, “Effects of Lipids on Can cer Therapy,” Nutrition Review, Vol. 48, No. 6, 1990, pp. 233-240. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1365747 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.1990.tb02946.x
 B. A. Nassar, M. S. Manku, Y. S. Huang, D. K. Jenkins and D. F. Horrobin, “The Influence of Dietary Marine Oil (Polepa) and Evening Primrose Oil (Efamol) on Prosta glandin Production by the Rat Mesenteric Vasculature,” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1987, pp. 253-263. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3033691 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0262-1746(87)90035-7
 K. Gopakumar and M. R. Rajendranathan, “Fatty-Acid Composition of Eight Species of Indian Fish,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1972, pp. 493-496.
 S. Sethi, O. Ziouzenkova, H. Ni, D. D. Wagner, J. Plut zky and T. N. Mayadas, “Oxidized Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil Inhibit Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions through Activation of PPAR α,” Blood, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1340-1356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-01-0316
 L. T. Rael, et al., “Lipid Peroxidation and the Thiobarbituric Acid Assay: Standardization of the Assay When Using Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids,” Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2004, pp. 749-752. http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.6.749
 S. G. Kaasgaard, G. Holmer, C.-E. Hoy, W. A. Behrens and J. L. Beare-Rogers, “Effects of Dietary Linseed Oil and Marine Oil on Lipid Peroxidation in Monkey Liver in Vivo and in Vitro,” Lipids, Vol. 27, No. 10, 1992, pp. 740-745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02535843
 L. A. Piche, H. H. Draper, P. D. Cole, “Malondialdehyde Excretion by Subjects Consuming Cod Liver Oil vs a Concentrate of n-3 Fatty Acids,” Lipids, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1988, pp. 370-371.
 J. V. Higdon, J. Liu, S. H. Du, J. D. Morrow, B. N. Ames and R. C. Wander, “Supplementation of Postmenopausal Women with Fish Oil Rich in Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Not Associated with Greater in Vivo Lipid Peroxidation Compared with Oils Rich in Oleate and Linoleate as Assessed by Plasma Malondial dehyde and F2-Isoprostanes,” American Journal of Clini cal Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2000, pp. 714-722. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10966889
 A. J. Hulbert, “Metabolism and Longevity: Is There a Role for Membrane Fatty Acids?” Integrative and Com parative Biology, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2010, pp. 808-817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icq007
 A. J. Hulbert, R. Pamplona, R. Buffenstein and W. A. Buttemer, “Life and Death: Metabolic Rate, Membrane Composition, and Life Span of Animals,” Physiological Reviews, Vol. 87, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1175-1213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00047.2006
 M. A. Kiebish, X. Han, H. Cheng, J. H. Chuang and T. N. Seyfried, “Cardiolipin and Electron Transport Chain Abnormalities in Mouse Brain Tumor Mitochondria: Lipidomic Evidence Supporting the Warburg Theory of Cancer,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 49, No. 12, 2008, pp. 2545-2566.
 J. J. Krebs, H. Hauser and E. Carafoli, “Asymmetric Dis tribution of Phospholipids in the Inner Membrane of Beef Heart Mitochondria,” The Journal of Biological Chemis try, Vol. 254, No. 12, 1979, pp. 5308-5316. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/447651?dopt=Abstract
 V. R. Fantin, “Attenuation of LDH-A Expression Unco vers a Link Between Glycolysis, Mitochondrial Physiolo gy, and Tumor Maintenance,” Cancer Cell, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2006, pp. 425-434.
 C. D. Malis, P. C. Weber, A. Leaf and J. V. Bonventure, “Incorporation of Marine Lipids into Mitochondrial Mem branes Increases Susceptibility to Damage by Calcium and Reactive Oxygen Species: Evidence for Enhanced Activation of Phospholipase A2 in Mitochondria Enrich ed With N-3 Fatty Acids [From Fish Oil],” Proceedings of the National Acadmey of Sciences, Vol. 87, No. 22, 1990, pp. 8845-8849.
 J. C. Umhau, W. Zhou, R. E. Carson, S. I. Rapoport, A. Polozova, J. Demar, et al., “Imaging Incorporation of Cir culating Docosahexaenoic Acid [DHA] into the Human Brain Using Positron Emission Tomography,” Journal of Lipid Research, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1259-1268.
 P. L. Goyens, M. E. Spilker, P. L. Zock, M. B. Katan and R. P. Mensink, “Conversion of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Humans is Influenced by the Absolute Amounts of Alpha-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid in the Diet and Not by their Ratio,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2006, pp. 44-53. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16825680
 R. J. Pawlosky, et al., “Physiological Compartmental Analysis of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Metabolism in Adult Humans,” Lipids Research, Vol. 42, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1257-1265.
 F. Gao, H. W. Kim, M. Igarashi, D. Klesewetter, L. Chang, K. Ma, et al., “Liver Conversion of Docosahex aenoic and Arachidonic Acids from Their 18-Carbon Pre cursors in Rats on a DHA-Free but α-LNA-Containing n-3 PUFA Adequate Diet,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA): Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Vol. 1811, No. 7-8, 2011, pp. 484-489.
 G. Barceló-Coblijn, E. J. Murphy, R. Othman, M. H. Moghadasian, T. Kashour and J. K. Friel, “Flaxseed Oil and Fish-Oil Capsule Consumption Alters Human Red Blood Cell n-3 Fatty Acid Composition: A Multiple Dosing Trial Comparing 2 Sources of n-3 Fatty Acid,” AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2008, pp. 801-809. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779299
 M. Plourde and S. C. Cunnane, “Extremely Limited Syn thesis of Long Chain Polyunsaturates in Adults: Implica tions for Their Dietary Essentiality and Use as Supple ments,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2007, pp. 619-634. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/H07-034
 S. C. Larsson, J. Virtamo and A. Wolk, “Fish Consump tion and Risk of Stroke in Swedish Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2011, pp. 487-493.