CE  Vol.4 No.10 , October 2013
Classroom Leadership and Creativity: A Study of Social Studies and Islamic Education Teachers in Jordan
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership practices and creativity traits as perceived by social studies and Islamic education teachers in Jordan. A sample of 289 social studies and Islamic education teachers were selected randomly. Data were collected using quantitative research method. Leadership practices were measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) developed by Kouzes and Posner (2003) with self-developed items on the Islamic component by the researchers, and creativity traits were measured using the Creativity Self-Perception Questionnaire (CSPQ) developed by Goertz (1993). The validity and the reliability of two instruments are already developed and assessed. The data have been statistically analyzed (by using the SPSS). Findings of the study revealed that teachers perceived themselves positively in all dimensions studied. They were also found to be creative, as they perceived themselves to possess all the creativity traits. The study also showed that there was a significant correlation between the results of the ten leadership dimensions together and the eight creativity traits of teachers were positively significant. The results showed that there were no significant differences according to the dependent variables (gender, major of specialization, educational experience, and stage of schools) on most of the independent variables (eight creativity traits and ten leadership dimensions). The study also offered some recommendations to enhance the status of educational leadership, creativity of social studies and Islamic education teachers.

Cite this paper
Al-Karasneh, S. & Jubran, A. (2013). Classroom Leadership and Creativity: A Study of Social Studies and Islamic Education Teachers in Jordan. Creative Education, 4, 651-662. doi: 10.4236/ce.2013.410094.
References
[1]   Al-Hammadi, A. (1996). The spark of creativity. Beirut: Dar Ibn Hazm.

[2]   Al-Mazeidy, Z. M. (1993). An introduction to the methodology of creativity: An Islamic point of view. Cairo: Dar Al-Wafa’ Littiba’a wa Al-Nashr.

[3]   Al-Safi, A. T. (1997). Creative thinking: A theory and practice. Jeddah: Matabi’ Dar Al-Bilad.

[4]   Al-Sorour, N. H. (2002). Introduction in creativity. Dar Wa’el Fort Publishing.

[5]   Anderman, L. H., & Midgley, C. (1998) Motivation and middle school students [ERIC digest]. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

[6]   Aubrey, J. V. (1992). The principal’s leadership role in effective site-based managed elementary schools. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Bridgeport, CT: University of Bridgeport.

[7]   Beare, H., Coldwell, B. J., & Millikan, R. H. (1989). Creating an excellent school, some new management techniques. London: Routhedge.

[8]   Beekun, R. I. and Badawi, J. (1999). Leadership: An Islamic perspective. Beltsville, MD: Amana Publishers.

[9]   Beswick (2008). Fostering creativity by establishing the conditions for complex emergence. Proceedings of the Discussing Group 9: Promoting Creativity for All Students in Mathematics Education, The 11th International Congress on Mathematical Education Monterrey, Mexico, 6-13 July 2008.

[10]   Blumberg, A. and Greenfield, W. (1986). The effective principal perspectives on school leadership (2nd Edition). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

[11]   Brophy, J., & Alleman, J. (1998). Classroom management in a social studies learning community. Social Education, 62, 23-34.

[12]   Brophy, J. (1983). Classroom organization and management. Elementary School Journal, 83, 265-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461318

[13]   Brophy, J. (1988). Educating teachers about managing classrooms and students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0742-051X(88)90020-0

[14]   Carter, M. (1992). Training teachers for creative learning experiences. Child Care Information Exchange, 85, 38-40.

[15]   Cavaliere, V. (1995). Leadership practices of principals from distinguished and nondistinguished middle schools as perceived by their teachers. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, La Verne, CA: La Verne University.

[16]   Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Society, culture, and person: A systems view of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of creativity: Contemporary psychological perspectives (pp. 325-339). New York: Cambridge University Press.

[17]   Dahar, M. A., Faize, F. A., Niwaz, A., Hussain, M. A., & Zaman, A. (2010). Relationship between the leadership styles and academic achievement at the secondary stage in Punjab. International Journal of Academic Research, 2, 459-462.

[18]   Darnell, N., Gallagher, D., Andrews, R., & Amaral, D. (2000). Environmental management systems: Opportunities for improved environmental and business strategy? Environmental Quality Management, 3, 1-9.

[19]   Datnow, A., & Castellano, M. E. (2001). Managing and guiding school reform: Leadership in success for all schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37, 219-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00131610121969307

[20]   Desforges, C. (2000). Classroom learning. The Nineteenth Vernon-Wall Lecture, London: The Education Section of the British Psychological Society.

[21]   Desforges, C.W (1995) Learning out of school. In Desforges, C. (Ed.), Introduction to teaching (pp. 5-32). Oxford: Blackwelland.

[22]   Desforges, C. W., & Cockburn, A. D. (1987) Understanding the mathematics teacher: A study of practice in the first school (pp. 167). Lewes: Falmer Press.

[23]   Doyle, W. (1977). Learning in the classroom environment: An ecological analysis. Journal of Teacher Education, 28, 51-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002248717702800616

[24]   Doyle, W. (1981). Research on the classroom. Journal of Teacher Education, 32, 3-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002248718103200602

[25]   Doyle, W. (1983). Academic work. Review of Educational Research, 53, 159-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543053002159

[26]   Doyle, W. (1986). Classroom Organization and Management. In M. C. Witttrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd Edition, pp. 392-431). New York: Macmillan.

[27]   Dunford, J., Fawcett, R., & Bennett, D. (2000). School leadership: National and international perspectives. London: Kogan Sage Limited.

[28]   Eisawi, A. R. (1990). Psychology of creativity: A study in the development of traits of creativity. Beirut: Dar Al-Nahdah Al-Arabiyyah.

[29]   Fleith, D. (2000) Teacher and student perceptions of creativity in the classroom environment. Roeper Review, 22, 148-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02783190009554022

[30]   Goertz, M. J. (1991). The relationship of leader effectiveness and selected traits of creativity. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

[31]   Gunter, H. M. (2001). Leaders and leadership in education. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

[32]   Hersey, P. (2002). Paul Hersey defines situational leadership terms. Journal of Leadership Studies, 8, 8.

[33]   Hess, F., & Kelly, A. (2007) learning to lead: What gets taught in principal-preparation programs. Teachers College Record, 109, 244-274.

[34]   Jackson, P. W. (1968). Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

[35]   Jarwan, F. A. R. (1990). Talent, improvement and creativity. www.madinanet.com/alkotob4

[36]   Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1991). Learning together and alone. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[37]   Koster-Peterson, L. M. (1993). Leadership skills, practices, and behaviors of effective principals in effective schools. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.

[38]   Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2003). The leadership challenge. San Francisco, VA: Jossey-Bass.

[39]   Lashway, L., Mazarella, J. A., & Grundy, T. (1996). Portrait of a leader. In S. C. Smith, & P. K. Piele (Eds.), School Leadership, Handbook for Excellence (pp. 15-38). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

[40]   Lumsden, L. (1994). Student motivation to learn. ERIC Digest, 92, 4358 .
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/Student_Motivatation.html#credits

[41]   Marchbanks, P. (2000). Personality traits: Elementary school teachersprospective elementary school teachers: Are they out there?
http://www.unc.edu/courses/2004spring/engl/012/054/PDF%20files/Sample%20Papers/Unit%202%20
Project/Unit%202--teacher.pdf


[42]   Mooney, C. G. (2000). Theories of childhood: An introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget, & Vygotsky. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

[43]   Morganett, L. (1991). Good teacher-student relationships: A key element in classroom motivation and management. Education, 112, 260-264.

[44]   Morris, R. E. (1998). Principals’ leadership practices in the implementtation of site-based management. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, West Hartford, CT: University of Hartford.

[45]   Muhammad, A. (1996). A comparative analysis of scientific research administrators’ leadership practices in public and private universities. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Houston, TX: Texas Southern University.

[46]   Munitz, B. (1999). Creative management demands creative leadership. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of Creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[47]   Nolan, F. L. (1992). Ethical leadership and school culture: An exploratory study of nine middle-level schools. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

[48]   Oumthanom, P. (2001). Principal leadership bahaviors: Differences in perception. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Normal, IL: Illinois State University.

[49]   Plucker, J. A., & Beghetto, R. A. (2004). Why creativity is domain general, why it looks domain specific, and why the distinction does not matter. In R. J. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From Potential to Realization (pp. 153-167). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10692-009

[50]   Rice, J. K. (2010) The impact of teacher experience examining the evidence and policy implications. Washington DC: CALDER Institute.

[51]   Ross, E. W. (2006). The social studies curriculum: Purposes, problems, and possibilities. New York: State University of New York press.

[52]   Schmiesing, D. (2001). The effects of leadership skills instruction on leadership practices. Unpublished Masters of Science, Steubenville, OH: University of Steubenville.

[53]   Schmook, I. M. L. (1996). Principals’ leadership and creativity in selected Florida schools. Ph.D. Thesis, Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida.

[54]   Slahova, A., Sawina, J., Cacka, M., & Volonte, I. (2007). Creative activity in conception of sustainable development education. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 8, 142-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14676370710726616

[55]   Spiel, C., & von Korff, C (1998) Implicit theories of creativity: The conceptions of politicians, scientists, artists and school teachers. Journal of High Ability Studies, 9, pp. 43-58.

[56]   Starko, A. J. (1995). Creativity and the quest for mechanism. In A. J. Starko, (Ed.), Creativity in the Classroom: Schools of Curious Delight (p. 126). New York: Longman Publishers.

[57]   Sternberg, R. J., & Williams, W. M. (1996). How to develop student creativity. http://www.ascd.org/ readingroom/books/sternberg96book.html

[58]   Stoycheva, K. (1996). The school: A place for children’s creativity? Paper presented at the European Council for High Ability Conference, Vienna, Austria.

[59]   Sweidan, T. M., & Adlouni, M. A. (2002). Mabadi’ Al-Ibda’ [Principles of Creativity]. Kuwait: Sharikat Al-Ibda’ Al-Khaliji.

[60]   Taylor, T. A. (2002). Examination of leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri-Columbia.

[61]   Tinzman, M. B., Jones, B. F., Fennimore, T. F., Bakker, J., Fine, C., & Pierce, J. (1990). What is the collaborative classroom. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
http://onlineacademy.org/modules/a402/support/xpages/a402b0_20400.html

[62]   Torrance, E. P., & Myers, R. E. (1970). Creative learning and teaching. New York: Dodd, Mead, & Company.

[63]   Ubben, G. C., & Hughes, L. W. (1997). The principal: Creative leadership for effective schools. 3rd Edition. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

[64]   Van Petegem, K., Creemers, B. P. M., Rosseel, Y., & Aelterman, A. (2005). Relationships between teacher characteristics, interpersonal teacher behaviour and teacher wellbeing. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 40, 34-43.

[65]   Weltman, R. (1995). Examine the practice of transformational leadership within National Blue Ribbon Elementary Schools in Cuyahoga County. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Akron, OH: University of Akron.

[66]   Wildy, H., & Louden, W. (2002). School restructuring and the dilemmas of principals? work. Educational Management and Administration, 28, 173-184.

[67]   Wilson, E. O. (1992). Sociobiology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[68]   Xu, Z. L. (1991). The relationship between leadership behavior of academic deans in public universities and job satisfaction of department Chairpersons. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Johnson City, TN: East Tennessee State University.

 
 
Top