Ariffin Ahmed Z., & Zain, O. (2000). Total quality management practice in Malaysia: How much is written? The Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Management, 35, 15-27.
 Ayd1n, A., & Sentürk, I. (2007). Application of total quality management in education [sample of primary schools]. Journal of Social Sciences, 17, 313-329.??
 Balc1, A. (2002). Organizational development. PegemA: Ankara.
 Bentler, P. M. (1995). Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Causal modeling. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 419-456.
 Bonnie, F. (2011). TQM workforce factors and employee involvement: The pivotal role of teamwork. Journal of Managerial Issues, 2, 13- 20.
 Boselie, P., & Wiele, T. V. D. (2002). Employee perceptions of HRM and TQM and the effects on satisfaction and intention to leave. Ma- naging Service Quality, 12, 165-172.
 Bostan, F. (2005). The assessment of the total quality management practice at the boarding region schools of primary education. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Adana: Cukurova University.
 Brocka, B., & Brocka, S. (1992). Quality management: Implementing the best ideas of the masters. Irwin, Inc.
 Chapman, R., & Al-Khawaldeh, K. (2002). Quality management world-wide: TQM and labour productivity in Jordanian industrial companies. The TQM Magazine, 14, 248-262.
 Charles, N. W. (1991). TQM: A step-by-step guide to implementation. ASQC Quality Press.
 C1nar, O., Atalay, S., & Buyükkasap, E. (2003). The role of education faculties on total quality management education. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 11, 297-304.
 Coate, L. E. (1990). Implementing total quality management in a university setting. In: A. Lawrence, J. Deborah, & S. Teeter, (Eds.), Total quality management in higher education. San Francisco: Josse- Bass Inc., Publishers.
 Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measure of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 39-52.
 Cruickshank, M. T. (2000). Developing a quality culture within a school of nursing in higher education. Unpublished PhD thesis, Hawkesbury: University of Western Sydney.
 Dahlgaard, J. J., & Dahlgaard-Park, S. M. (2006). Lean production, six sigma quality, TQM and company culture. The TQM Magazine, 18, 263-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09544780610659998
 Dean, M. B., & Helms, M. M. (1996). The implementation of total quality management into public sector agencies: A case study of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Benchmarking for Quality Management and Technology, 17, 1127-1138.
 Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
 Garvin, D. A. (1983). Quality on the line. Harvard Business Review, 61, 64-75.
 Guimaraes, T. (1997). Assessing employee turnover intentions before/ after TQM. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 14, 46-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02656719710156770
 Günbay1, I., & Cevik, V. (2004). An investigation on the opinions of teachers and managers about total quality management. Journal of National Education, 163, 5-17.?
 Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Pierson Hall.
 Hamedoglu, M. A. (2002). The obstacles of total quality management applications in elementary education. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Sakarya: Sakarya University.
 Hashmi, K. (2007). Introduction and implementation of total quality management (TQM). Journal of electronics and Quality Management, 6, 45-57.
 Haque, A., Sarwar, A. A. M., Yasmin, F., Anwar, A., & Nuruzzaman. (2012). The impact of customer perceived service quality on cus- tomer satisfaction for private health centre in Malaysia: A structural equation modeling approach. Information Management and Business Review, 4, 257-267.
 Hellsten, U., & Klefsjo, B. (2000). TQM as a management system consisting of values, techniques and tools. The TQM Magazine, 12, 238-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09544780010325822
 Hyde, A. (1992). The proverbs of total quality management: Recharting the path to quality improvement in the public sector. Public Productivity and Management Review, 16, 25-37.
 Idrus, N. (1995). Empowerment as a manifestation of total quality: A study in three countries. Total Quality Management, 6, 603-612.
 Imai, M. (1986). Kaizen, the key to japan’s competitive success. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
 Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
 Lezotte, L. W. (1992). Creating the total quality effective school. Okemos, MI: Effective Schools Products Ltd.
 McCulloch, M. (1993). Total quality management: Its relevance for higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 1, 127-133.
 McNealy, R. M. (1993). Making quality happen. London: Chapman & Hall.
 Md Ariff, M. S., Zaidin, N., & Sulong, N. (2011). Total quality management implementation in higher education: Concerns and challenges faced by the faculty. Paper presented at the ICIT conference, 1-23.
 Ministry of Education (MOE) (2012). Malaysian Ministry of Education Act 1995. http://www.moe.gov.my/
 Munoz, M. A. (1999). Total quality management in higher education: Lessons learned from an information technology office.
 Mutlu, S. (2001). The facility of the total quality management at the primary schools according to the opinions of teachers and adminis- trators. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Adana: Cukurova University.
 Newby, P. (1999). Culture and quality in higher education. Higher Education Policy, 12, 261-275.
 Noorliza, K. (1999). The impact of TQM practice on employees’ work-related attitudes. Unpublished MBA Thesis, Penang: University Science Malaysia.
 Oakland, J. S., & Oakland, S. (2001). Current people management activities in world-class organizations. Total Quality Management, 12, 773-785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544120120075370
 Ozden, Y. (2002). New Values in Education. PegemA, Ankara.
 Ozevren, M. (2000). TQM: Basic concepts and practices. Alfa Ya-y1nlar1, Istanbul.
 Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows. Version 12. Allen & Unwin, Syd- ney.
 Rampa, S. H. (2004). The re-lationship between total quality manage- ment and school improvement. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Preto-ria: University of Pretoria.
 Reed, R., Lemak, D. J., & Montgomery, J. C. (1996). Beyond process: TQM content and firm performance. Academy of Management Review, 21, 173-202.
 Sallis, E. (2002). Total quality management in education (3rd ed.). London: Kogan Page.
 Sarwar, A., Haque, A., & Yasmin, F. (2013). The usage of social network as a marketing tool: Malaysian muslim consumers’ perspective. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Science, 2, 93-102.
 Sarwar, A., Haque, A., & Ismail, A. Z. (2012). Measuring students’ perception towards university selection: An empirical investigation on malaysian postgraduate students. International Journal of Re- search in Commerce, Economics & Management, 2, 13-20.
 Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (5th ed.). Haddington: John Wiley & Sons.
 Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday.
 Sisman, M., & Turan, S. (2002). TQM in education. Academy of Management Review, 2, 33-42.
 Sitkin, S., Sutcliffe, K., & Schroeder, R. (1994). Distinguishing control from learning in total quality management: A contingency perspective. Academy of Management Review, 19, 537-564.
 Spanbauer, S. J. (1989). Measuring and costing quality in education. Appleton, Wisconsin: Fox Valley Technical College Foundation.
 Stevens, D. P. (1993). Avoiding failure with total quality. Quality (QUA), December, 18-22.
 Tay, A. (2001). Management’s perception of MBA graduates in Malaysia. Journal of Management Development, 20, 258-274.
 Tenth Malaysia Plan (2010). Creating the Environment for Unleashing Economic Growth. In: 10th Malaysia Plan: 2011-2015, 133.
 Terry, P. M. (1996). Using TQM principles to implement school-based management. Pa-per presented at the 14th Annual International Confe-rence of the International Association of Management, Toronto, August.
 Thiagarajan, T. (1996). An empirical study of total quality management in Malaysia: A proposed framework of generic application. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Bradford.
 Töremen, F., Karakus, M., & Yasan, T. (2009). Total quality manage- ment practices in Turkish primary schools. Quality Assurance in Education, 17, 30-44.
 Tribus, M. (1993). Quality management in education. Journal for Quality and Participation, 16, 12-21.
 Waldman, D. A. (1993). A theoretical consideration of leadership and total quality management. The Leadership Quarterly, 4, 65-79.
 Yigit, B., & Bayrakdar, M. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions on the applicability of TQM principles at primary schools. Journal of National Education, 158, 723-741.
 Y1ld1z, E. (2006). Total quality management in secondary schools: The case of Iskenderun. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Hatay: Mustafa Kemal University.
 Zain, O., Goon, C. A., & Wan Aris, W. H. (1998). Quality services: Policies and practices in Malaysia. Library Management, 19, 11-21.
 Zainudin, A. (2012). A handbook on SEM: Structural equation model- ling using amos graphics (4th ed.). Kelantan: University Technology MARA Press.
 Zhang, Z. H. (2000). Developing a model of quality management methods and evaluating their effects on business performance. Total Quality Management, 11, 129-137.