Singh, S.R. (1990) Insect pests of tropical food crops. John Willey and Sons, Ibadan.
 Jefferson, T. (2005) Cowpea: Aversatile crop for hot dry conditions. Thomas Jefferson Agricultural Institute, West Nifong Soulevard, Columbia.
 Asiwe, J.A.N. (2009) Needs assessment of cowpea production practices, constraints and utilization in South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 5383-5388.
 Singh, B.B., Asante, K., Ajegbe, H. and Mohammed, S.H. (2000) General guide for cowpea cultivation and seed production. Sasakawa Global 2000, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja.
 Ahmed, B.I., Onu, I. and Mudi, I. (2009) Field bioefficacy of plant extracts for the control of post flowering insect pests of cowpea in Nigeria. Journal of Biopesticides, 2, 37-43.
 Degri, M.M., Maina, Y.T. and Richard, B.I. (2012) Effect of plant extracts on post flowering insect pests and grain yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) in Maiduguri Semi Arid zone of Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2, 46-51.
 Manawadu, D. and Sharah, H.A. (1990) Review of insects associated with cowpea: The case of Maiduguri in the semiarid zone of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 11, 100-111.
 Amatobi, C.I. (1994) Field evaluation of some insecticides for the control of insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 40, 13-17.
 Sharah, H.A. and Ali, E.A. (2008) Impact of insecticide spray regimes on insect abundance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in North Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 3, 255-260.
 Oparaeke, A.M. (2005) Studies on insecticidal potentials of extracts of Gmelina arborea products for the control of field pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Journal of Plant Protection Research, 45, 68-73.
 Dzemo, W.D., Niba, A.S. and Asiwe, J.A.N. (2010) Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in the Traskei, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 1673-1679.
 Fuglie, L.J. (1998) Producing food without pesticides: Local solutions to crop pest control in West Africa. National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America, Church World Service, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, Ede, 158p.
 Stoll, G. (2001) National crop protection in the tropics. Letting information come to life. F & T. Mullerbader Fildstadt Publishers, Germany, 208p.
 Jackai, L.E.N., Inang, E.E. and Nwobi, P. (1992) The potential for controlling post flowering pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Tropical Pest Management, 38, 56-60.
 Emosairue, S.O. and Ukeh, D.A. (1996) Field trials of neem products for the control of okra flea beetles in south eastern Nigeria. African Journal for Plant Protection, 6, 22-26.
 Gomez, A.K. and Gomez, A.A. (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
 Debashri, M. and Tamal, M. (2012) A review on efficacy of Azadirachta indica A. Juss based biopesticides: An Indian perspective. Research Journal of Recent Science, 1, 94-99.
 Gupta, S.P., Prakash, A. and Rao, J. (1990) Biopesticidal activity of certain plant products against rice earhead bug, Leptocorisa acuta Thunb. Journal of Applied Zoological Research, 1, 55-58.
 Siddappaji, C., Kumar, A.R.V. and Gangadhar, R. (1986) Evaluation of different insecticidal sprays against the chickpea borer, Heliothis armigera Hubn. Pesticides, 20, 13-16.
 Nelson S.J., Sundarababu, P.C., Rajavel, D.S., Srimmannarayana, G. and Geetanjali, Y. (1993) Antifeedant and growth inhibiting effects of azardirachtin-rich neem fractions on Sogatella furcifera Horvath, Spodoptera litura Fabr. and Helicoverpa armigera Hubn. World Neem Conference, 10, 243-252.
 Matur, B.M. and Davou, B.J. (2007) Comparative larvicidal property of leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata L (Composidae) and Chlopyrifos (organophosphorus compound) on Simulium larvae. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 20, 313-316.
 Mbah, O.I. and Okoronkwo, M.O. (2008) An assessment of two plant product efficacy for the control of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) in stored maize African. Journal of Agricultural Research, 3, 494-498.
 Amenga, D.A. (2011) The efficacy of ethanolic root and leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata (L). in controlling Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in stored maize. MSc. Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.
 Upasani, S.M., Kotkar, H.M., Mendki, P.S. and Maheshwari, V.L. (2003) Partial characterization and insecticidal properties of Ricinus communis L. foliage flavonoids. Pest Management Science, 59, 1349-1354.
 Ghosh, S., Tiwari, S.S., Srivastava, S., Sharma, A.K., Kumar, S., Ray, D.D. and Rawat, A.K. (2012) Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Veterinary Parasitology, 18, 259-267.
 Kodjo, T.A., Gbénonchi, M., Sadate, A., Komi, A., Yaovi, G., Dieudonné, M. and Komla, S. (2011) Bioinsecticidal effects of plant extracts and oil emulsions of Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) on the diamondback, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) under laboratory and semifield conditions. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 43, 2899-2914.
 Babarinde, S.A., Oyegoke, O.O. and Adekunle, A.E. (2011) Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of Ricinus communis seed extracts obtained by different methods against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Archive of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44, 451-459.
 Lv, C., Zhong, B., Zhong, G., Weng, Q., Chen, S., Hu, M., Sun X. and Qin, W. (2012) Four botanical extracts are toxic to the hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima, in laboratory and semifield trials. Journal of Insect Science, 12, 58.
 Pacheco-Sánchez, C., Villa-Ayala, P., Montes-Belmont, R., Figueroa-Brito, R. and Jiménez-Pérez, A. (2012) Effect of Ricinus communis extracts on weight and mortality of Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). International Journal of Applied Science Technology, 2, 83-94.
 Oparaeke, A.M., Dike, M.C. and Amatobi, C.I. (2005) Evaluation of botanical mixture for insect Pest management on cowpea Plants. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 106, 41-48.
 Jackai, L.E.N. and Adalla, C.B. (1997) Pest management practices in cowpea: A review. In: Singh, B.B., Mohan Raj, D.R., Dashiella, K.E. and Jackai, L.E.N., Eds., Advances in Cowpea Research, Co-Publication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Ibadan, 240-258.