G. L. Morris and J. Fan, “Reservoir Sedimentation Handbook,” McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1998.
 R. J. Garde and K. G. Ranga Raju, “Mechanics of Sediment Transportation and Alluvial Stream Problems,” Third Edition, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, New Delhi, 2000, 5p.
 P. M. Ndomba, “Modeling of Sedimentation Upstream of Nyumba ya Mungu Reservoir in Pangani River Basin,” Nile Basin Water Science and Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010, pp. 25-38.
 P. M. Ndomba, “Developing Sediment Yield Equations for Small Catchments in Tanzania,” In: D. Chen, Ed., Advances in Data, Methods, Models and Their Applications in Geoscience, InTech, China, 2011, pp. 241-260.
 P. M. Ndomba, “Modelling of Erosion Processes and Reservoir Sedimentation Upstream of Nyumba Ya Mungu Reservoir in the Pangani River Basin,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, 2007.
 P. M. Ndomba and A. van Griensven, “Suitability of SWAT model in sediment yields modelling in the Eastern Africa,” In D. Chen, Ed., Advances in Data, Methods, Models and Their Applications in Geoscience, InTech, China, 2011, pp. 261-284. www.intechopen.com
 J. G. Arnold, J. R. Williams and D. R. Maidment, “Continuous-Time Water and Sediment-Routing Model for Large Basins,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 2, 1995, pp. 171-183.
 A. van Griensven, P. Ndomba, S. Yalew and F. Kilonzo, “Critical Review of the Application of SWAT in the Upper Nile Basin Countries,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2012, pp. 3371-3381.
 P. M. Ndomba, F. W. Mtalo and A. Killingtveit, “Model in Sediment Yield Modelling for Ungauged Catchments: A Case of Simiyu Subcatchment,” EAWAG-Zurich, Zurich, 2005, pp. 61-69. www.brc.tamus.edu/swat
 M. K. Mulengera and R. W. Payton, “Estimating the USLE-Soil Erodibility Factor in Developing Tropical Countries,” Tropical Agriculture, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1999, pp. 17-22.
 M. K. Mulengera, “Sediment Yield Predictionin Tanzania: Case Study of Dodoma District Catchments,” Tanzania Journal of Engineering and Technology (TJET), Vol. 2, No. 1, 2008, pp. 63-71.
 P. M. Ndomba, F. W. Mtalo and A. Killingtveit, “Estimating Gully Erosion Contribution to Large Catchment Sediment Yield Rate in Tanzania,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 34, 2009, pp. 741-748.
 P. M. Ndomba, F. W. Mtalo and A. Killingtveit, “A Guided SWAT Model Application on Sediment Yield Modeling in Pangani River Basin: Lessons Learnt,” Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2008, pp. 53-62. doi:10.4090/juee.2008.v2n2.053062
 P. Lawrence, A. Cascio, O. Goldsmith and C. L. Abott, “Sedimentation in Small Dams-Development of a Catchment Characterization and Sediment Yield Prediction Procedure,” Department for International Development (DFID) Project R7391 HR Project MDSO533 by HR, Department for International Development (DFID), Wallingford, 2004.
 P. Z. Yanda, “Temporal and Spatial Variations of Soil Degradation in Mwisanga Catchment, Kondoa, Tanzania,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 1995, 136p.
 PSIAC, Pasific Southwest InterAgency Committee, “Factors Affecting Sediment Yield in the Pasific Southwest Area and Selection and Evaluation of Measures for Reduction of Erosion and Sediment Yield,” Report No. HY 12, Water Management Subcommitte on ASCE, Reston, 1998.
 RCD, Resource Conservation District, “PSIAC Model: Sediment Yields in Sub-watersheds of the Petaluma River,” Resource Conservation District, Petaluma, 1998.
 J. V. Vogt, R. Colombo and F. Bertolo, “Driving Drainage Networks and Catchment Boundering. A New Methodology Combining Digital Elevation Data and Environmental Characteristics,” Geomorphology, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 281-298.
 P. Bazzoffi, G. Baldassarre and S. Vacca, “Validation of PSIAC Model for Automatic Assessment of Resservoir Sedimentation,” In: M. Albertson, Ed., Proceedings of the International Conference on Reservoir Sedimentation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 1996, pp. 519-528.
 R. Safamanesh, W. A. Sulaiman and M. F. Ramli, “Erosion Risk Assessment Using an Empirical model of Pasific Southwest Inter-Agency Committee Method for Zargeh watershed, Iran,” Journal of Spatial Hydrology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2006, pp. 105-120.
 L. Tamene, A. Abegaz, E. Aynekulu, K. Woldearegay and P. L. Vlek, “Estimating Sediment Yield Risk of Reservoirs in Northern Ethiopia Using Expert Knowledge and Semi-Quantitative Approaches,” Lake and Reservoirs: Research and Management, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2011, pp. 293-305. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1770.2011.00489.x
 R. J. Last, A. A. Nyblade, C. A. Langston and T. J. Owens, “Crustal Structure of the East African Plateau from Receiver Functions and Raleigh Wave Phase Velocities,” Journal of Geographical Research, Vol. 102, No. B11, 1997, pp. 24469-24483.
 C. H. Pilskaln and C. T. Johnson, “Seasonal Signals in Lake Malawi Sediments,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1991, pp. 544-557.
 M. M. McGlue, K. E. Lezzar, A. S. Cohen, J. M. Russell, J. J. Tiercelin, A. A. Felton, E. Mbede and H. H. Nkotagu, “Seismic Records of Late Pleistocene Aridity in Lake Tanganyika, Tropical East Africa,” Journal of Paleolimnology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2007, pp. 635-653.
 GST, Geological Survey of Tanzania, “Geological Map of Tanganyika,” 1959. www.gst.go.tz
 URT, United Republic of Tanzania, “Highway Design Manual Ministry of Works,” 1999.
 SUA, Sokoine University of Agriculture, “Country Report: Tanzania, ‘Managing Risk and Reducing Vulnerability of Agricultural Systems under Variable and changing Climate’,” Soli Water Management Research Programme, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, 2007.
 N. Reynard, A. Andrews and N. Arnell, “The Derivation of a Runoff Grid for Southern Africa for Climate Change Impact Analyses,” Regional Hydrology: Concepts and Models for Sustainable Water Resource Management, No. 246, IAHS Publication, Sheffield, 1997, pp. 23-30.
 L. R. Oldeman, R. A. Hakkeling and W. G. Sombroek, “Global Assessment of Soil Degradation (GLASOD): World Map of the Status of Human-Induced Soil Degradation,” United Nations Environment Programme, International Soil Reference and Information Centre, 1991.
 M. Ilanloo, “Estimation of Soil Erosion Rates Using MPSIAC Models (Case Study Gamasiab Basin),” International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 16, 2012, pp. 1154-1158. www.ijagcs.com
 G. Gutman and A. Ignatov, “The Derivation of the Green Vegetation Fraction from NOAA/AVHRR Data for Use in Numerical Weather Prediction Models,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, No. 8, 1998, pp. 1533-1543. doi:10.1080/014311698215333
 NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Map (NDVI),” 2013. http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/land
 StatSoft, Inc., “Electronic Statistics Textbook (Electronic Version),” StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, 2013.
 D. N. Moriasi, J. G. Arnold, M. W. van Liew, R. L. Bingner, R. D. Harmel and T. L. Veith, “Model Evaluation Guidelines for Systematic Quantification of Accuracy in Watershed Simulations,” American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2007, pp. 885-900.
 J. E. Nash and J. V. Sutcliffe, “River Flow Forecasting through Conceptual Models: Part 1. A Discussion of Principles,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1970, pp. 282-290. doi:10.1016/0022-1694(70)90255-6
 H. L. Alder and E. B. Roessler, “Introduction to Probability and Statistics,” 5th Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1972, 373p.
 C. G. Santhi, J. R. Arnold, W. A. Dugas, R. Srinivasan and L. M. Hauck, “Validation of the SWAT Model on a Large River Basin with Point and Nonpoint Sources,” Journal of America Water Resources association, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1169-1188.
 C. Christiansson, “Soil Erosion and Sedimentation in Semi-Arid Tanzania: Studies of Environmental Change and Ecological Imbalance,” Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala, 1981, 208p.
 D. E. Walling and B. W. Webb, “Erosion and Sediment Yield: A Global Overview,” Erosion and Sediment Yield: Global and Regional Perspectives, No. 236, IAHS Publication, Sheffield, 1996, pp. 3-19.