Fourteen meteorological stations distributed over Jordan were
selected. Data of annual and monthly rainfall amount of autumn (October and
November) for a period more than 50 years were analyzed to show their
relationships with the normal annual rainfall. An attempt was made
to use the standard deviation values in order to have an early prediction for
the annual rainfall (less or more than the normal) depending on the autumn rainfall
amounts. It is found that the annual rainfall exceeded the normal when autumn rainfall
amounts were more than 30mm in Jurf El Daraweesh, Qatraneh, Safawi, and
Wadi Musa, 50mm in Mafraq, 60mm in Amman, and 100mm in Salt and
Irbed. Regression analysis projected weak increasing trends in autumn and
decreasing trends in the annual rainfall in the majority of Jordan.
Cite this paper
A. Ghanem, "Case Study: Trends and Early Prediction of Rainfall in Jordan," American Journal of Climate Change, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2013, pp. 203-208. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.23021.
 A. Ghanem, “Trends in mean seasonal and annual rainfall amounts over Jordan,” Dirasat, University of Jordan, Vol. 8, 2011, pp. 1041-1049.
 A. Ghanem, “Analysis of Decadal Rainfall in Jordan. Dirasat, Natural and Engineering Sciences,” University of Jordan, 1997, pp. 179-201.
 M. Freiwan and M. Kadioglu, “Climate Variability in Jordan,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 28, No.1, 2008, pp. 69-89. doi:10.1002/joc.1512
 S. A. Talozi Samer, “Water and Security in Jordan,” In: C. Lipchin, Ed., Integrated Water Resources Management and Security in the Middle East, Springer, 2007, pp. 73-98. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5986-5_4
 A. Ghanem, “Analysis of Aridity Index for the Rainy Season in Jordan,” Tunisian Journal of Geography, Vol. 28, 1995, pp.79-67.
 Q. Tarawneh and M. Kadioglu, “An Analysis of Precipitation Climatology in Jordan,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 71, No. 1-2, 2003, pp.71-85.
 A. Dahamsheh and H. Aksoy, “Structural Characteristics of Annual Precipitation Data in Jordan,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 88, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 201-212.
 A. M. Subyani, “Geostatistical Study on Annual and Seasonal Rainfall Patterns in Southwest Saudi Arabia,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2004, pp. 803-817.
 M. Kadioglu, N. Ozturk, H. Erdun and Z. Sen, “On the Precipitation Climatology of Turkey by Harmonic Analysis,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 19, 1999, pp. 1717-1728.
 M. Gemmer, S. Becker and T. Tiag, “Observed Monthly Precipitation Trends in China 1951-2002,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 77, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 39-45. doi:10.1007/s00704-003-0018-3
 L. Krown, “An Approach to Forecasting Seasonal Rainfall in Israel,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1966, pp. 590-594.
 M. A. Toum, “Sudan Climate,” Nafe’ Printing House, Cairo, 1974.
 M. Hatzaki, H. A. Flocas, H. D. N. Asimakopoulos and R. Maheras, “The Eastern Mediterranean Teleconnection Pattern: Identification and Definition,” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 27, No. 6, 2007, pp.727-737.
 P. A. Kassomenos, “Anatomy of the Synaptic Conditions Occurring over Southern Greece during the Second Half of the 20th Century,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 75, 2003, pp. 65-77.
 U. Dayan and A. Richard, “Heavy Rain in the Middle East Related to Unusual Jet Stream Properties,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 64, No. 10, 1983, pp. 1138-1140.
 Y. Khalil, “Sand-Dust Storms in Jordan (1975-200500),” Ph.D. Dissertation, Jordan University, Amman, 2008.
 L. Krown, “Notes in October Rainfall as an Indication of Seasonal Rainfall Expectation for Israel,” Israel Meteorological Service, 1951, 10 p.
 N. Shehadeh, “Jordan Climate,” Dar Al-Bashir, Amman, 1990.
 L. Kioutsioukis, D. Melas and C. Zerefos, “Statistical Assessment of Changes in Climate Extremes over Greece (1955-2002),” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 3, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1723-1737. doi:10.1002/joc.2030
 T. Caloiero and R. Coscarell, E. Ferrari and M. Mancini, “Trend Detection of Annual and Seasonal Rainfall in Calabria (Southern Italy),” International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 31 No. 1, 2011, pp. 44-56.
 S. Naoum and I. Tsanis, “Temporal and Spatial Variation of Annual Rainfall on the Island of Crete, Greece,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 17, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1899-1922. doi:10.1002/hyp.1217
 H. A. Nasrallah and A. C. Balling, “Analysis of Recent Climatic Changes in the Arabian Peninsula Region,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1996, pp. 245-252. doi:10.1007/BF00871740