The use of powdered activated carbon for fouling control
in the membrane processes is limited by some secondary problems associated with
its use, like cake formation, long backwash times and blackening of pipes.
Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used as an alternative of
powdered activated carbon due to its large particle size which was kept from
being entering into the membrane system. The secondary problems associated with
the use of powdered activated carbon as foul control were not observed for
granular activated carbon. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption were used to
describe the adsorption of 2,4-D and paraquat on GAC. Adsorption capacity of
adsorbent was high for 2,4-D as compared to paraquat. Also, the R2 value was high for
Langmuir model as compared to Freundlich model. Retention percentage of 2,4-D
by membrane was high and thus the decline in permeate flux was high as compared
to paraquat in ultrafiltration (UF) membrane process. 100% retention of 2,4-D
was achieved in GAC/UF hybrid system. Improved permeate fluxes were observed
for both contaminants in the hybrid system.
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