L. F. Tseng, “Mechanisms of β-Endorphin-Induced Anti-nociception,” In: L. F. Tseng, Ed., The Pharmacology of Opioid Peptides, Harwood Academia Publishers, Newark, United States, 1995, pp. 249-269.
 A. Merenlender-Wagner, Y. Dikshtein and G. Yadid, “The β-Endorphin Role in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders,” Current Drug Targets, Vol. 10, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1096-1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138945009789735147
 S. C. Ribeiro, S. E. Kennedy, Y. R. Smith, C. S. Stohler and J.-K. Zubieta, “Physical and Emotional Stress Regulation through the Endogenous Opioid System and μ-Opioid Receptors,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 29, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1264-1280.
 A. L. O. Hebb, S. Laforest and G. Drolet, “Chapter 4.9 Endogenous Opioids, Stress, and Psychopathology,” Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Vol. 15, 2005, pp. 561-583.
 A. R. Prossin, T. M. Love, R. A. Koeppa, J. K. Zubieta and K. R. Silk, “Dysregulation of Regional Endogenous Opioid Function in Borderline Personality Disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 167, No. 8, 2010, pp. 925-933.
 D. Parikh, A. Hamid, T. C Friedman, K. Nguyen, A. Tseng, P. Marquez and K. Lufty, “Stress-Induced Analgesia and Endogenous Opioid Peptides: The Importance of Stress Duration,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 650, No. 2-3, 2011, pp. 563-567.
 J. Panksepp, B. H. Herman, T. Vilberg, P. Bishop and F. G. DeEskinazi, “Endogenous Opioids and Social Behavior,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1980, pp. 473-487.
 P. C. Dinas, Y. Koutedakis and A. D. Flouris, “Effects of Exercise and Physical Activity during Depression,” Irish Journal of Medical Science, Vol. 180, No. 2, 2011, pp. 319-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-010-0633-9
 L. Hoffman, P. B. Watson, G. Wilson and J. Montgomery, “Low Plasma β-Endorphin in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 23, No, 2, 1989, pp. 269-273.
 G. M. Goodwin, M. P. Austin, S. M. Curran, M. Ross, N. Prentice, K. P. Ebmeier, J. Bennie, S. Carroll and H. Dick, “The Elevation of Plasma Beta-Endorphin Levels in Major Depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1993, pp. 281-289.
 M. Leboyer, M. P. Bouvard, C. Recasens, M. H. Plumet, D. Walter-Perotte, F. Tabuteau, F. Bondoux and M. Dugas, “Opiate Hypothesis in Infantile Autism? Therapeutic Trials with Naltrexone,” L’Encephale, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1993, pp. 95-102.
 M. A. Arnold, D. B. Carr, D. M. Togasaki, M. C. Pian, and J. B. Martin, “Caffeine Stimulates Release in Blood But Not in Cerebrospinal Fluid,” Life Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 10, 1982, pp. 1017-1024.
 R. H. Khalil and M. R. Soliman, “Diazapam Alters Caffeine-Induced Effects on Beta-Endorphin Levels in Specific Rat Brain Regions,” Life Sciences, Vol. 61, No. 25, 1997, pp. 2485-2490.
 D. M. Veleber and D. I. Templer, “Effects of Caffeine on Anxiety and Depression,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 1, 1984, pp. 120-122.
 K.-F. Shen and S. M. Crain, “Dual Opioid Modulation of the Action Potential Duration of Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons in Culture,” Brain Research, Vol. 491, No. 1, 1989, pp. 227-242.
 S. M. Crain and K.-F. Shen, “Modulation of Opioid Analgesia, Tolerance, and Dependence by Gs-Coupled, GM1 Ganglioside-Regulated Opioid Receptor functions,” Trends in Pharmacologic Science, Vol. 19, No. 9, 1998, pp. 358-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-6147(98)01241-3
 S. Crain and S. M. Crain, “Endorphinergic Attenuation of Distress by Concomitantly Enhancing Endogenous Opioid Release and Switching Opioid Receptor Signaling from an Excessively Excitatory to a Normal Inhibitory Mode,” Journal of Behavioral and Brain Research, Vol. 3, in Press.
 S. M. Crain and K.-F. Shen, “Antagonists of Excitatory Opioid Receptor Functions Enhance Morphine’s Analgesic Potency and Attenuate Opioid Tolerance/Dependence Liability,” Pain, Vol. 84, No. 2-3, 2000, pp. 121-131.
 S. M. Crain and K.-F. Shen, “Neuraminidase Inhibitor, Oseltamivir Blocks GM1 Ganglioside-Regulated Excitatory Opioid Receptor-Mediated Hyperalgesia, Enhances Opioid Analgesia and Attenuates Tolerance in Mice,” Brain Research, Vol. 995, No. 2, 2004, pp. 260-266.
 S. M. Crain and K.-F. Shen, “Low Doses of Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Rapidly Evoke Opioid-Mediated Thermal Hyperalgesia in Naive Mice Which Is Converted to Prominent Analgesia by Cotreatment with Ultra-Low-Dose Naltrexone,” Brain Research, Vol. 1231, 2008, pp. 16-24.
 S. Crain, W. Crain, S. M. Crain and M. Crain, “Methods and Compositions for Treating Distress Dysfunction and Enhancing Safety and Efficacy of Specific Medications,” USPTO Patent 8372414, February 12, 2013.
 S. F. LaVincente, J. M. White, A. A. Somogyi, F. Bochner and C. B. Chapleo, “Enhanced Buprenorphine Analgesia with the Addition of Ultra-Low-Dose Naloxone in Healthy Subjects,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 83, No. 1, 2007, pp. 144-152.
 C. S. Yuan, T. Karrison, J. A. Wu, T. K. Lowell, J. P. Lynch and J. F. Foss, “Dose-Related Effects of Oral Acetaminophen on Cold-Induced Pain: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1998, pp. 379-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-9236(98)90169-2
 Z. D. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, S. K. Vosburgm, J. M. Manubay, M. Haney, R. W. Foltin, S. M. Evans, W. J. Kowalczyk, P. A. Saccone and S. D. Corner, “Effects of Repeated Oxycodone Administration on Its Analgesic and Subjective Effects in Normal, Healthy Volunteers,” Behavioral Pharmacology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2012, pp. 271-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0b013e3283536d6f
 G. J. McKenna, “Methadone and Opiate Drugs: Psychotropic Effect and Self-Medication,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 398, 1982, pp. 44-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1982.tb39472.x
 C. France and B. Ditto, “Cardiovascular Responses to the Combination of Caffeine and Mental Arithmetic, Cold Pressor, and Static Exercise Stressors,” Psychophysiology, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1992, pp. 272-282.
 B. Meier, “Pain Killer: A Wonder Drug’s Trail of Addiction and Death,” Rodale Press, Emmaus, 2003.
 E. Nestler, “Historical Review: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Opiate and Cocaine Addiction,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2004, pp. 210-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2004.02.005
 S. M. Crain and K.-F. Shen, “Chronic Morphine-Treated Sensory Ganglion Neurons Remain Supersensitive to the Excitatory Effects of Naloxone for Months after Return to Normal Culture Medium: An in Vitro Model of ‘Protracted Opioid Dependence,’” Brain Research, Vol. 694, No. 1-2, 1995, pp. 103-110.
 J. T. Slattery, J. M. Wilson, T. F. Kalhorn and S. D. Nelson, “Dose-Dependent Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen: Evidence of Glutathione Depletion in Humans,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 41, 1987, pp. 413-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.1987.50
 M. Hadijconstantinou and N. H. Neff, “Nicotine and Endogenous Opioids: Neurochemical and Pharmacological Evidence,” Neuropharmacology, Vol. 60, No. 7-8, 2011, pp. 1209-1220.
 J. M. Mitchell, J. P. O’Neil, M. Janabi, S. M. Marks, W. J. Jagust and H. L. Fields, “Alcohol Consumption Induces Endogenous Opioid Release in the Human Orbitofrontal Cortex and Nucleus Accumbens,” Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 116, 2012, p. 116ra6.
 H. Teschemacher, G. Koch and V. Brantl, “Milk ProteinDerived Opioid Receptor Ligands,” Biopolymers (Peptide Science), Vol. 43, No. 2, 1997, pp. 99-117.
 F. R. Huebner, K. W. Lieberman, R. P. Rubino and J. S. Wall, “Demonstration of High Opioid-Like Activity in Isolated Peptides from Wheat Gluten Hydrolysates,” Peptides, Vol. 5, No. 6, 1984, pp. 1139-1147.
 C. Colantuani, P. Rada, J. McCarthy, C. Patten, N. Avena, A. Chadeayne and B. Hoebel, “Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence,” Obesity Research, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2002, pp. 478-488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2002.66
 N. M. Avena, P. Rada and B. G. Hoebel, “Evidence for Sugar Addiction: Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2008, pp. 20-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.04.019
 S. Seneff, R. Davidson and L. Mascitelli, “Might Cholesterol Sulfate Deficiency Contribute to the Development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder?” Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2012, pp. 213-217.
 C. B. Pert, “Molecules of Emotion,” Scribner, New York, 1997.
 C. F. Levinthal, “Messengers of Paradise: Opiates and the Brain,” Doubleday, New York, 1988.
 J. Panksepp, “A Neurochemical Theory of Autism,” Trends in Neuroscience, Vol. 2, 1979, pp. 174-177.
 F. G. Bowling, H. S. Heussler, A. McWhinney and P. A. Dawson, “Plasma and Urinary Sulfate Determination in a Cohort with Autism,” Biochemical Genetics, Vol. 51, No, 1-2, 2013, pp. 147-153.
 R. H. Waring and L. V. Klovrza, “Sulphur Metabolism in Autism,” Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2000, pp. 25-32.
 A. Lekman, O. Skjeidal, E. Sponheim and L. Svennerholm, “Gangliosides in Children with Autism,” Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 84, No. 7, 1995, pp. 787-790.
 P. Good, “Did Acetaminophen Provoke the Autism Epidemic?” Alternative Medicine Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2009, pp. 364-372.
 G. Christopher, “Endogenous Opioids and Opiate Antagonists in Autism: Brief Review of Empirical Findings and Implications for Clinicians,” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1995, pp. 239-245.
 A. Y. Hardan, L. K. Fung, R. A. Libove, T. V. Obukhanych, S. Nair, L. A. Herzenberg, T. W. Frazier and R. Tirouvanziam, “A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of oral N-Acetylcysteine in Children with Autism,” Biolo-gical Psychiatry, Vol. 71, No. 11, 2012, pp. 956-961.
 C. M. Pennesi and L. C. Klein, “Effectiveness of the Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet for Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Based on Parental Report,” Nutritional Neuroscience, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2012, pp. 85-91.
 G. Dichter, C. A. Damiano and J. S. Allen, “Reward Circuitry Dysfunction in Psychiatric and Developmental Disorders and Genetic Syndromes: Animal Models and Clinical Findings,” Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Vol. 4, No. 19, 2012, pp. 1-43.
 O. Dean, F. Giorlando and M. Berk, “N-Acetylcysteine in Psychiatry: Current Therapeutic Evidence and Potential Mechanisms of Action,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2011, pp. 78-86.
 M. Berk, G. S. Malhi, L. J. Gray and O. M. Dean, “The promise of N-Acetylcysteine in Neuropsychiatry,” Trends in Pharmacological Science, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2013, pp. 167-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2013.01.001