EPE  Vol.5 No.7 , September 2013
Kite Modeling for Higher Altitude Wind Energy
Abstract: Among the renewable energy sources, high altitude wind power is gaining increased attention for its better strength, steadiness, and coverage compared to the traditional ground-based wind power with wind turbines. However, unlike the latter, the technology for high altitude wind is still immature and the works on the field are mostly empirical. In our research, we try to set up a framework about force analysis and provide a stepping stone for other kite energy researchers and engineers to develop more efficient systems. In this paper, we analyzed and experimentally verified the effects of acting aerodynamic forces at different angles of attack ranging from 0° to 90°. We also studied the power potentials of a kite corresponding to these varying forces. The work will enable a researcher or engineer to design a more feasible and more efficient kite power system with better understanding of the kite dynamics.
Cite this paper: H. Zhang, "Kite Modeling for Higher Altitude Wind Energy," Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 7, 2013, pp. 481-488. doi: 10.4236/epe.2013.57052.

[1]   A. D. Hansen and L. H. Hansen, “Wind Turbine Concept Market Penetration over 10 Years (1995-2004),” Wind Energy, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2006, pp. 81-97. doi:10.1002/we.210

[2]   European Wind Energy Association.

[3]   Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of PRC.

[4]   US Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy.

[5]   G. M. Joselin Herbert, S. Iniyan, E. Sreevalsan and S. Rajapandian, “A Review of Wind Energy Technologies,” Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1117-1145. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.004

[6]   US Department of Energy, “20% Wind Energy by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to US Electricity Supply,” 2008.

[7]   “Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity,” US Energy Information Administration, 2012.

[8]   C. L. Archer and M. Z. Jacobson, “Spatial and Temporal Distributions of U.S. Winds and Wind Power at 80 m Derived from Measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. D9, 2003, 4289. doi:10.1029/2002JD002076

[9]   Joby Energy, Joby Energy Homepage.

[10]   Makani Power, Makani Power Homepage, 2010.

[11]   Magenn Power, Magenn Power Homepage, 2010. http://www.magenncom

[12]   B. Lansdorp and W. J. Ockels, “Comparison of Concepts for High-Altitude Wind Energy Generation with Ground Based Generator,” NRE 2005 Conference, Beijing, 2005.

[13]   M. Canale, L. Fagiano and M. Milanese, “KiteGen: A Revolution in Wind Energy Generation,” Energy, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2009, pp. 355-361. doi:10.1016/

[14]   D. L. Elliott, C. G. Holladay, W. R. Barchet, H. P. Foote and W. F. Sandusky, “Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States,” DOE/CH 10093-4, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, 1986.

[15]   A. Ilzhofer, B. Houska and M. Diehl, “Nonlinear MPC of Kites under Varying Wind Conditions for a New Class of Large-Scale Wind Power Generators,” International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, Vol. 17, No. 17, 2007, pp. 1590-1599. doi:10.1002/rnc.1210

[16]   P. Williams, B. Lansdorp and W. Ockels, “Optimal Crosswind Towing and Power Generation with Tethered Kites,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2009, pp. 81-93. doi:10.2514/1.30089

[17]   I. Argatov and R. Silvennoinen, “Energy Conversion Efficiency of the Pumping Kite Wind Generator,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1052-1060. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2009.09.006

[18]   M. L. Loyd, “Crosswind Kite Power,” Journal of Energy, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1980, pp. 106-111.

[19]   F. L. Ponta, J. J. Seminara and A. D. Otero, “On the Aerodynamics of Variable-Geometry Oval-Trajectory Darrieus Wind Turbines,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2007, pp. 35-56.

[20]   S. J. Schreck and M. C. Robinson, “Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamics in Experiments and Modeling,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2007, pp. 61-70.

[21]   S. Arya, “Introduction to Micrometeorology,” Academic Press, New York, 1988.

[22]   A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Basic Laws of Turbulent Mixing in the Atmospheric Surface Layer,” Trudy Geofiz, Instituta Akademii Nauk, SSSR (Proceedings of Geophysics Institute, National Academy of Science, SSSR), Vol. 24, 1954, pp. 163-187.

[23]   R. H. Thuillier and U. O. Lappe, “Wind and Temperature Profile Characteristics from Observations on a 1400 ft Tower,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 964, pp. 299-306. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1964)003<0299:WATPCF>2.0.CO;2

[24]   I. A. Pérez, M. A. García, M. L. Sánchez and B. de Torre “Analysis and Parameterisation of Wind Profiles in the Low Atmosphere,” Solar Energy, Vol. 78, No. 6, 2005, pp. 809-821.

[25]   J. D. Nicolaides, “Parafoil Wind Tunnel Tests,” University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 1971.

[26]   R. E. Klimes and P. C. Sheldahl, “Aerodynamic Characteristics of Seven Symmetrical Airfoil Sections Through 180 Degree Angle of Attack for Use in Aerodynamic Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 1981.