MSA  Vol.4 No.9 , September 2013
Effects of Vanadium Content on Structure and Chemical State of TiVN Films Prepared by Reactive DC Magnetron Co-Sputtering
ABSTRACT

TiVN films were deposited on Si(100) wafers without external heating and biasing by reactive dc magnetron co-sputtering. Titanium and vanadium metals were used as sputtering targets. Ar and N2 gases were used as sputtering gas and reactive gas, respectively. The flow rates of Ar and N2 were 8 and 4 sccm, respectively. The Ti sputtering current (ITi) was kept constant at 0.6 Aand V sputtering current (IV) was varied from 0.4 to1.0 A. The deposition time for all the deposited films was 30 min. The effects of V sputtering current on the structure, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, and chemical composition and chemical state of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. It was found that all the prepared film formed (Ti,V)N solid solution. The lattice parameter was found to decrease while crystallite size, RMS roughness and film thickness increased with increasing V sputtering current. High resolution XPS spectra of the Ti 2p, V 2p and N 1s revealed that the fraction of Ti-N and V-N bonds increased as the V sputtering current increased. However, the V-N bond was observed only at a high V sputtering current.


Cite this paper
T. Deeleard, S. Chaiyakun, A. Pokaipisit and P. Limsuwan, "Effects of Vanadium Content on Structure and Chemical State of TiVN Films Prepared by Reactive DC Magnetron Co-Sputtering," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 556-563. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.49068.
References
[1]   K. H. Lee, C. H. Park, Y. S. Yoon and J. J. Lee, “Structure and Properties of (Ti1-xCrx)N Coatings Produced by the Ion-Plating Method,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 385, No. 1, 2001, pp. 167-173. doi:10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01911-8

[2]   G. S. Kim, B. S. Kim, S. Y. Lee and J. H. Hahn, “Structure and Mechanical Properties of Cr-Zr-N Films Synthesized by Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with Vertical Magnetron Sources,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 5-6, 2005, pp. 1669-1675. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.08.101

[3]   S. M. Aouadi, T. Maeruf, R. D. Twesten, D. M. Mihut and S. L. Rohde, “Physical and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Nitride Thin Films,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 11, 2006, pp. 3411-3417. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.02.169

[4]   H. Hasegawa, A. Kimura and T. Suzuki, “Microhardness and Structural Analysis of (TI,AI)N, (Ti,Cr)N, (Ti,Zr)N, and (TI,V)N, Films,” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2000, pp. 1038-1040. doi:10.1116/1.582296

[5]   R. Wuhrer and W. Y. Yeung, “Grain Refinement with Increasing Magnetron Discharge Power in Sputter Deposition of Nanostructured Titanium Nitride Coatings,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2004, pp. 813-818. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2003.12.022

[6]   P. W. Shum, K. Y. Li, Z. F. Zhou and Y. G. Shen, “Structural and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminium Nitride Films Deposited by Reactive Close-Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 185, No. 2-3, 2004, pp. 245-253. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.12.011

[7]   O. Knotek, W. D. Munz and T. Keyendecker, “Industrial Deposition of Binary, Ternary, and Quarternary Nitrides of Titanium, Zirconium and Aluminum,” Journal of Vacuum Science &Technology A, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1987, pp. 2173-2179. doi:10.1116/1.574948

[8]   N. Ichimiya, Y. Onishi and Y. Tanaka, “Properties and Cutting Performance of (Ti,V)N Coatings Prepared by Cathodic Arc Ion Plating,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 5-6, 2005, pp. 1377-1382. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.08.026

[9]   S. Boelens and V. Veltrop, “Hard Coatings on TiN, (TiHf)N and (TiNb)N Deposited by Random and Steered Arc Evaporation,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 33, 1987, pp. 63-71. doi:10.1016/0257-8972(87)90177-0

[10]   J. G. Han, H. S. Myung, H. M. Lee and L. R. Shaginyan, “Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Ag-N and Ti-Cr-N Superhard Nanostructured Coatings,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 174-175, 2003, pp. 738-743. doi:10.1016/S0257-8972(03)00565-6

[11]   D. H. Jung, H. S. Park, H. D. Na, J. W. Lim, J. J. Lee and J. H. Joo, “Mechanical Properties of (Ti,Cr)N Coatings Deposited by Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 169-170, 2003, pp. 424-427. doi:10.1016/S0257-8972(03)00146-4

[12]   S. M. Aouadi, K. C. Wong, K. A. R. Mitchell, F. Namavar, E. Tobin, D. M. Mihut and S. L. Rohde, “Characterization of Titanium Chromium Nitride Nanocomposite Protective Coatings,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 229, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 387-394. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.02.019

[13]   V. M. Vishnyakov, V. I. Bachurin, K. F. Minnebaev, R. Valizadeh, D. G. Teer, J. S. Colligon, V. V. Vishnyakov and V. E. Yurasova, “Ion Assisted Deposition of Titanium Chromium Nitride,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 497, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 189-195. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2005.05.005

[14]   R. Sanjines, O. Banakh, C. Rojas, P. E. Schmid and F. Levy, “Electronic Properties of Cr1-xAlxN Thin Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 420-421, 2002, pp. 312-317. doi:10.1016/S0040-6090(02)00830-1

[15]   M. Uchida, N. Nihira, A. Mitsuo, K. Toyoda, K. Kubota and T. Aizawa, “Friction and Wear Properties of CrAlN and CrVN Films Deposited by Cathodic Arc Ion Plating Method,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 177-178, 2004, pp. 627-630. doi:10.1016/S0257-8972(03)00937-X

[16]   W. Y. Yeung, S. N. Dub, R. Wuhrer and Y. V. Milman, “A Nanoindenation Study of Magnetron Co-Sputtered Nanocrystalline Ternary Nitride Coatings,” Science of Sintering, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2006, pp. 211-221. doi:10.2298/SOS0603211Y

[17]   L. Wang, G. Zhang, R. J. K. Wood, S. C. Wang and Q. Xue, “Fabrication of CrAlN Nanocomposited Films with High Hardness and Excellent Anti-Wear Performance for Gear Application,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 204, No. 21-22, 2010, pp. 3517-3524. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.04.014

[18]   H. Hasegawa, M. Kawate and T. Suzuki, “Effects of Al Contents on Microstructures of Cr1-xAlxN and Zr1-xAlxn Films Synthesized by Cathodic Arc Method,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 7, 2005, pp. 2409-2413. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.08.208

[19]   E. Martinez, R. Sanjines, A. Karimi, J. Esteve and F. Levy, “Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposite and Multilayered Cr-Si-N Sputtered Films,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 180-181, No. 6, 2004, pp. 570-574. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.10.121

[20]   P. Hones, M. Diserens, R. Sanjines and F. Levy, “Electronic Structure and Mechanical Properties of Hard Coating Chromium-Tungsten Nitride System,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2851-2856. doi:10.1116/1.1320806

[21]   U. Konig, “Deposition and Properties of Multicomponent Hard Coatings,” Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol. 33, 1987, pp. 91-103. doi:10.1016/0257-8972(87)90180-0

[22]   A. Cavaleiro, B. Trindade and M. T. Vieira, “The Influence of the Addition of a Third Element on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Transition-Metal-Based Nanostructured Hard Films: Part I—Nitrides,” In: A. Cavaleiro and J. Th. M. De Hosson, Eds., Nanostructured Coatings, Springer, New York, 2006, pp. 261-314.

[23]   C. J. Powell, “NIST XPS Datebase, Elecment Composition Search Menu,” 2012. http:/srdata.nist.gov/xps/elmcomposition.aspx.

 
 
Top