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 JCDSA  Vol.3 No.3 A , September 2013
Adverse Effects of Permanent Waving and Hair Relaxation—Assessment by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Abstract: Permanent waving is very popular in Japan. Polypeptide chains (main chains) form the principal components of hair, and they are lined up longitudinally. Hair relaxation is also called straight permanent waving, and there are methods that change curly or wavy hair into straight hair. Hair damage as a result of winding, combing, and using high-temperature hairdressing irons is also often seen. By using scanning electron micrographs (SEM) we showed broken hairs and hair damage caused by permanent wave solutions. The hair damage is obvious when comparisons are made with the condition of the hair surface, condition of the cuticle, etc. Hair swelling by permanent wave solutions, manipulations such as winding, etc., inadequate rinsing with water, procedures on injured hair at the outset, etc., are considered possible reasons for any of these types of injury.
Cite this paper: T. Omi and S. Kawana, "Adverse Effects of Permanent Waving and Hair Relaxation—Assessment by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)," Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 45-48. doi: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.33A1007.
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