Back
 OJNeph  Vol.3 No.3 , September 2013
Surface Treated Catheters for Vascular Access—Useful?
Abstract: Background: Catheter-related infections (CRI), thrombosis, and stenosis are among the most frequent complications associated with catheters which are inserted in vessels as vascular access. These problems are usually related to the handling of the staff, the catheter materials, and the surface properties of the catheter. To mitigate such complications surface treatment process of the outer surface, such as ion beam assisted deposition is investigated in a retrospective study from 1992 to 2007, to prove if the surface treatment of the catheters is a sufficient solution. Methods: This study (1992-2007) evaluated silver coated and non-coated implanted large-bore catheters used for extracorporeal detoxification. In 159 patients, 54 patients received a silver coated catheter (Spi-Argent, Spire Corporation, Bedford, MA, USA) and 105 patients, an untreated catheter served as controls. The catheters were inserted into the internal jugular or subclavian veins. After removal, the catheters were cultured for bacterial colonization using standard microbiologic assays. They were also examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: The silver coated catheters showed a tendency towards longer in situ time. The microbiologic examinations of the catheter tips were in both catheter types high positive, but not significant. Conclusion: The silver coated catheters showed no significant reduction in infection rate by evaluation of all collected data in this retrospective study. There was no association between both catheters in significantly reducing patient discomfort. Other surface treatments which include the outer and inner surface are necessary. New developed catheter materials such as the microdomain structured inner and outer surface, as an example, are considered more biocompatible because they mimic the structure of natural biological surface.
Cite this paper: R. Bambauer, R. Schiel, C. Bambauer and R. Latza, "Surface Treated Catheters for Vascular Access—Useful?," Open Journal of Nephrology, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 152-160. doi: 10.4236/ojneph.2013.33028.
References

[1]   [1] L. Beloqui, S, Shaldon, L, Chiandussi and B. Higgs, “Haemodialysis by Percutaneous Catheterization of the Femoral Artery and Vein with Reginal Heparinisation,” Lancet, Vol. 11, 1961, p. 857.

[2]   D. G. Maki, “Infection Due to Infusion Therapy,” In: I. V. Bennett and P. S. Brachman, Eds., Hospitals Infections, Little Brown and Co., Boston, 1992, pp. 849-859.

[3]   J. S. Groegor, A. B. Lucas and H. A. T. Thaler, “Infectious Morbidity Associated with Long-Term Use of Venous Access Devices in Patients with Cancer,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 119, No. 12, 1993, pp. 1168-1174. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-119-12-199312150-00003

[4]   R. Bambauer, P. Mestres and K. J. Pirrung, “Frequency, Therapy, and Prevention of Infections Associated with Large-Bore Catheter,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1992, pp. 96-101.

[5]   R. Bambauer, R. Inninger and K. J. Pirrung, “Complications and Side Effects Associated with Large-Bore Catheters in the Suclavian and Internal Veins,” Artificial Organs, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1994, pp. 318-321. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1594.1994.tb02204.x

[6]   C. M. Kjellstrand, G. G. Merino, S. M. Mauer, et al., “Complications of Percutaneous Femoral Vein Catheterization for Hemodialysis,” Clinical Nephrology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1975, pp. 37-40.

[7]   A. Schwarzbeck, W. D. Brittinger, G. E. von Henning, et al., “Cannulation of Subclavian Vein for Hemodialysis Using Seldinger Technique,” Transactions of American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1978, pp. 24-31.

[8]   A. De Cubber, C. De Wolf, N. Lameire, et al., “Single Needle Hemodialysis with Double Headpump via the Subclavian Vein,” Dialysis & Transplantation, Vol. 7, No. 11, 1978, pp. 1261-1263.

[9]   P. R. Uldall, P. R. Dyck and F. Woods, “A Subclavian Cannula for Temporary Vascular Access for Hemodialysis or Plasmapheresis,” Dialysis & Transplantation, Vol. 8, No. 9, 1979, pp. 963-968.

[10]   C. T. Flynn and R. McGowan, “Subclavian Vein Catheter and Clockwork Pump,” Dialysis & Transplantation, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1980, pp. 556-616.

[11]   R. Bambauer and G. A. Jutzler, “Jugularis-Interna Punktion zur Shaldon-Katheterisierung. Ein neuer Zugang für Akute Hamodialysen,” Nieren-Hochdruckh, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1980, pp. 109-116

[12]   R. Bambauer and G. A. Jutzler, “Transcutaneous Insertion of the Shaldon Catheter through the Internal Jugular Vein as Access for Acute Hemodialysis,” Dialysis & Transplantation, Vol. 11, No. 9, 1982, pp. 766-771.

[13]   D. Philibert, M. Agharazii, E. Audy, et al., “Clinical Experience with a Chronic Hemodialysis Catheter with Symmetrical Tip Configuration (Palindrone TM),” JASN, Vol. 16, 2005.

[14]   M. Allon, “Dialysis Catheter-Related Bacteremia Treatment and Prophylaxis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2004, pp. 779-791.

[15]   J. Nielsen, H. J. J. Kolosk and F. Espersen, “Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia among Patients Undergoing Dialysis: Focus Dialysis Catheter-Related Cases,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1988, pp. 139-145. doi:10.1093/ndt/13.1.139

[16]   R. Locci, G. Peters and G. Pulverer, “Microbiological Colonization of Prosthetic Devices. Microtopological Characteristics of Intravenous Catheters as Detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy,” Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Vol. 173, No. 2, 1981, pp. 285-292.

[17]   J. W. Costerton, L. Montanaro and C. R. Arciola, “Biofilm in Implant Infections: Its Production and Regulation,” International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 28, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1065-1068.

[18]   R. Bambauer, R. Schiel, S. Bambauer and P. Sioshansi, “Large Bore Catheters with Surface Treatments versus Untreated Catheters for Blood Access,” The Journal of Vasclar Access, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2001, pp. 97-105.

[19]   J. D. Maya, D. Carlton, E. Estrada, et al., “Treatment of Dialysis Catheter-Related Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia with an Antibiotic Lock: A Quality Improvement Report,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2007, pp. 289-295. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.04.014

[20]   G. K. Dogra, H. Herson, B. Hutchison, et al., “Prevention of Tunnelled Hemodialysis Catheter-Related Infections Using Catheter Restricted Filling with Gentamycin and Citrate: A Randomized Controlled Study,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 13, No. 8, 2002, pp. 2133-2139. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000022890.29656.22

[21]   R. Bambauer, R. Schiel, P. Mestres and P. Sioshansi, “Scanning Electron Microscopic Investigation of Catheters for Blood Access,” International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 18, No. 5, 1995, pp. 326-331.

[22]   R. Hollenbeck, V. Mickley, J. Brunkwall, et al., “Gefabzugang zur Hamodialyse” Der Nephrologe, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2009, pp. 158-176. doi:10.1007/s11560-009-0281-0

[23]   R. Bambauer, R. Schiel, S. Bambauer and P. Sioshansi, “Long-Term Catheters for Apheresis and Dialysis with Surface Treatment with Infection Resistance and Low Thrombogenicity,” Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2003, pp. 225-231. doi:10.1046/j.1526-0968.2003.00042.x

[24]   R. Bambauer and G. A. Jutzler, “Lagekontrolle Groblumiger Zentraler Venenkatheter Mittels Intrakardialer Elektrographie,” Intensivmed, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1980, pp. 12-17.

[25]   P. Sioshansi and E. J. Tobin, “Surface Treatment of Biomaterials by Ion-Beam Processes,” Medical Plastics and Biomaterials, Vol. 2, 1995, pp. 50-59.

[26]   P. Sioshansi, “New Process for Surface Treatment of Catheters,” Artificial Organs, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1994, pp. 226-271. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1594.1994.tb02193.x

[27]   R. Bambauer, P. Mestres, R. Schiel, et al., “New Surface Treatment Technologies for Catheters Used for Extracorporeal Detoxication Methods,” Dialysis & Transplantation, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1995, pp. 228-237.

[28]   P. Sioshansi, “Ion Implantation of Cobalt Chronicum Prosthetic Components to Reduce Polyethylene Wear,” Orthopedics Today, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1991, pp. 24-25.

[29]   D. Schierholz, A. Rump and W. Pulverer, “Klinische und Praklinische Effizienz Antimikrobieller Katheter,” Anaesthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther, Vol. 32, No. 5, 1997, pp. 289-305. doi:10.1055/s-2007-995058

[30]   R. Bambauer, R. Schiel, C. Bambauer and R. Latza, “Surface-Treted versus Untreated Large-Bore Catheters as Vascular Access in Hemodialysis and Apheresis,” International Journal of Nephrology, Vol. 2012, 2012, Article ID: 956136, 8 pages. http://www.Hindawi.com/journals/ijn(2012/956136/

[31]   R. Vanholder, N. Hoenich, S. Ringoir, et al., “Morbidity and Mortality of Central Venous Catheter Hemodialysis, a Review of 10 Years’ Experience,” Nephron, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1987, pp. 247-279. doi:10.1159/000184523

[32]   G. Jean, B. Charra, C. Chazot, et al., “Risk Factor Analysis for Long-Term Tunnelled Dialysis Catheter-Related Bacteremias,” Nephron, Vol. 91, No. 2, 2002, pp. 399-405. doi:10.1159/000064279

[33]   S. H. Kim, K. I. Song, J. W. Chang, et al., “Prevention of Uncuffed Hemodialysis Catheter-Related Bacteremia Using an Antibiotic Lock Technique: A Prospective, Randomised Clinical Trial,” Kidney International, Vol. 69, No. 1, 2006, pp. 161-164. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5000012

[34]   E. A. King, D. McCoy, S. Desai, et al., “Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcal Bacteraemia and Daptomycin: Are Higher Doses Necessary?” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 66, No. 9, 2011, pp. 2112-2118. doi:10.1093/jac/dkr255

[35]   I. Cui, A. Iwamoto and I. O. Lian, “Novel Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance Originating in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2006, pp. 428-438. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.2.428-438.2006

[36]   I. Cui, F. Tominage, H. M. Nenh, et al., “Correlation between Reduced Daptomycin Suscetibility and Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2006, pp. 1079-1082. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.3.1079-1082.2006

[37]   D. G. Maki, J. K. Garman, J. M. Shapiro, et al., “An Attachable Silver-Impregnated Cuff for Prevention of Infection with Central Venous Catheters: A Prospective Randomized Multicenter Trial,” The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 85, No. 3, 1988, pp. 307-314. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(88)90579-7

[38]   K. S. Tweden, J. D. Cameron, A. J. Razzouk, et al., “Silver Modification of Polyethylene Terphthalate Textile for Antimicrobial,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 43, No. 2, 1997, pp. M475-M481. doi:10.1097/00002480-199703000-00088

[39]   A. Oloffs, C. Gosse-Siestrup, S. Bisson, et al., “Biocompatibility of Silver Coated Polyurethane Catheters and Silver Coated Dacron Material,” Biomaterials, Vol. 15, No. 10, 1994, pp. 753-758. doi:10.1016/0142-9612(94)90028-0

[40]   R. Bambauer, P. Mestres, R. Schiel, et al., “Surface Treated Large-Bore Catheters with Silver Based Coating Versus Untreated Catheters for Extracorporeal Detoxication Methods,” ASAIO Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1998, pp. 3003-3008. doi:10.1097/00002480-199807000-00013

[41]   K. S. Rabindranath, T. Bansal, J. Adams, et al., “Systematic Review of Antimicrobials for Prevention of Hemodialysis Catheter-Related Infections,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Vol. 24, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3763-3774. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfp327

[42]   A. A. Hampton and R. J. Sheretz, “Vascular Access Infections in Hospitalised Patients,” The Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 68, No. 1, 1988, pp. 57-71.

[43]   C. Von Eif, W. Kohnen, K, Becker, et al., “Modern Strategies in the Prevention of Implant-Associated Infections,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 28, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1146-1156.

[44]   J. F. Timsit, O. Mimoz, B. Mourviller, et al., “Randomized Controlled Trial of Chlorhexidine Dressing and Highly Adhesive Dressing for Preventing Catheter-Related Infections in Critically Ill Adults,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 186, No. 12, 2012, pp. 1272-1278. doi:10.1164/rccm.201206-1038OC

[45]   L. Troidle and F. O. Finkelstein, “Catheter-Related Bacteremia in Hemodialysis Patients: The Role of the Central Venous Catheter in Prevention and Therapy,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 31, No. 9, 2008, pp. 827-833.

[46]   S. Cicalini, F. Palmieri and N. Petrosillo, “Clinical Review: New Technologies for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections,” Critical Care, Vol. 8, 2004, pp. 157-162. doi:10.1186/cc2380

[47]   G. Donelli, I. Francolini, A. Piozzi, et al., “New PolymerAntibiotic Systems to Inhibit Bacterial Biofilm Formation: A Suitable Approach to Prevent Central Venous CatheterAssociated Infections,” Journal of Chemotherapy, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2002, pp. 501-507.

[48]   S. Schmitt, G. Haase, E. Csomor, et al., “Inhibitor of Complement, Compstatin, Prevents Polymer-Mediated Mac-1 Up-Regulation of Human Neutrophils Independent of Biomaterial Type Tested,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 66A, No. 3, 2003, pp. 491-499. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.10031

[49]   M. R. Parsek, D. L. Val, B. L. Hanzelka, et al., “Acyl Homoserine-Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signal Generation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 96, No. 8, 1999, pp. 4360-4365. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.8.4360

[50]   D. G. Davies, M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, et al., “The Involvement of Cell-to-Cell Signals in the Development of a Bacterial Biofilm,” Science, Vol. 280, No. 5361, 1998, pp. 295-298. doi:10.1126/science.280.5361.295

[51]   H. J. Feldmann, S. Kobrina and A. Wasserstein, “Hemodialysis Vascular Morbidity,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1996, 523-535.

[52]   S. Bambauer, “Cost Reduction Benefits of Applying an Antimicrobial Surface Treatment to Catheters,” Personnel Communication, 1996.

[53]   C. Schwebel, J. C. Lucet, A. Vesin, et al., “Economic Evaluation of Chlorhexidine-Impregnated Sponges for Preventing Catheter-Related Infection in Critically Ill Adults in the Dressing Study,” Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2012, pp. 11-17. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822f0604

[54]   P. J. Pronovost, C. A. Goeschel, E. Colantuoni, et al., “Sustaining Reductions in Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Michigan Intensive Care Units: Observational Study,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 340, 2010, p. c309. doi:10.1136/bmj.c309

[55]   E. Toccanelli, G. Smith, A. Hiske, et al., “Epidemiology, Medical Outcomes and Costs of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Intensive Care Units of Four European Countries: Literatureand Registry-Based Estimates,” Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2009, pp. 97-103. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2008.12.012

[56]   N. P. O’Grady, M. Alexander, L. A. Burns, et al., “Guidelines for the Preventions of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 52, No. 9, 2011, pp. e162-e193.

[57]   T. Nagai, S. Kohsaka, T. Anzai, et al., “Low Incidence of Catheter-Related Complications in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Undergoing Continuous Epoprostenol Infusions,” Chest, Vol. 141, No. 1, 2012, pp. 272-273.doi:10.1378/chest.11-1893

 
 
Top