K. P. Chang, J. R. Center, T. V. Nguyen and J. A. Eisman, “Incidence of Hip and Other Osteoporotic Fractures in Elderly Men and Women: Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2004, pp. 532-536. doi:10.1359/JBMR.040109
 M. Saudan, A. Lubbeke, C. Sadowskil, N. Riand, R. Stern and P. Hoffmeyer, “Pertrochanteric Fractures: Is There an Advantage to an Intramedullary Nail? A Randomized Prospective Study of 206 Patients Comparing the Dynamic Hip Screw and Proximal Femoral Nail,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2002, pp. 386-393.
 J. Pajarinen, J. Lindahl, O. Michelsson, V. Savolainen and E. Hirvensalo, “Pertrochanteric Femoral Fractures Treated with a Dynamic Hip Screw or a Proximal Femoral Nail. A Randomized Study Comparing Post-Operative Rehabilitation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2005, pp. 76-81.
 M. R. Baumgaertner, S. L. Curtin and D. M. Lindskog, “Intramedullary versus Extramedullary Fixation for the Treatment of Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol. 348, 1998, pp. 87-94.
 T. R. C. Davis, J. L. Sher, A. Horsman, M. Simpson, B. B. Porter and R. G. Checketts, “Intertrochanteric Femoral Fractures, Mechanical Failure after Internal Fixation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1990, pp. 26-31.
 C. I. Adams, C. M. Robinson, C. M. Court-Brown and M. M. Mcqueen, “Prospective Randomized Controlled Trail of an Intramedullary Nail versus Dynamic Screw and Plate for Intertrochanteric Fractures of the Femur,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2001, pp. 394-400. doi:10.1097/00005131-200108000-00003
 W. M. Gadegone and Y. S. Salphale, “International Orthopaedics, Proximal Femoral Nail—An Analysis of 100 Cases of Proximal Femoral Fractures with an Average Follow up of 1 Year,” International Orthopaedics, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2007, pp. 403-408.
 L. A. Flores, I. J. Harrington and M. Heller, “The Stability of Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated with a Sliding Screw-Plate,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1990, pp. 37-40.
 S. H. Bridle, A. A. A. D. Patel, M. Bircher, et al., “Fixation of Intertrochanteric Fractures of the Femur: A Randomized Prospective Comparison of the Gamma Nail and Dynamic Hip Screw,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 73, No. 2, 1991, pp. 330-334.
 I. B. Schipper, E. W. Steyerberg, R. M. Castelein, F. H. W. M. van der Heijden, P. T. den Hoed, A. J. H. Kerver and A. B. van Vugt, “Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Fractures, Randomised Comparison of the Gamma Nail and the Proximal Femoral Nail,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2004, pp. 86-94.
 T. Morihara, S. Tokugawa, S. Fujita, K. Chatani and T. Kubo, “Proximal Femoral Nail for Treatment of Trochanteric Femoral Fractures,” Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2007, pp. 273-277.
 M. Uzun, E. Ertürer, I. Oztürk, S. Akman, F. Seckin and I. B. Ozselik, “Long-Term Radiographic Complications Following Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Femoral Fractures with the Proximal Femoral Nail and Effects on Functional Results,” Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2009, pp. 457-463.
 E. N. Kubiak, M. Bong, S. S. Park, F. Kummer, K. Egol and K. J. Koval, “Intramedullary Fixation of Unstable Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures, One or Two Lag Screws,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2004, pp. 12-17. doi:10.1097/00005131-200401000-00003
 M. J. Parker and H. H. G. Handoll, “Gamma and Other Cephalocondylic Intramedullary Nails versus Extramedullary Implants for Extracapsular Hip Fractures in Adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, No. 3, 2008, Article ID: CD000093.
 H. Pervez, M. J. Parker, G. A. Pryor and L. Lutchman, “Classification of Trochanteric Fracture of the Proximal Femur: A Study of the Reliability of Current Systems; Nishan Chirodian Injury,” Injury, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2002, pp. 713-715. doi:10.1016/S0020-1383(02)00089-X
 W. H. Harris, “Traumatic Arthritis of the Hip after Dislocation and Acetabular Fractures: Treatment by Mold Arthroplasty. An End Result Study Using a New Method of Result Evaluation,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1969, pp. 737-755.
 J. Langford and A. Burgess, “Nailing of Proximal and Distal Fractures of the Femur: Limitations and Techniques,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2009, pp. S22-S25. doi:10.1097/BOT.0b013e31819f2797
 E. T. Su, H. DeWal, R. Sanders, F. J. Kummer, M. Mujtaba and K. J. Koval, “Effect of Piriformis versus Trochanteric Starting Point on Fixation Stability of Short Intramedullary Reconstruction Nails,” Bulletin Hospital for Joint Diseases, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2001, pp. 67-71.
 D. J. Hak and C. Bilat, “Avoiding varus Malreduction during Cephalomedullary Nailing of Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures,” Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Vol. 131, No. 5, 2011, pp. 709-710.
 G. Al-Yassari, R. J. Langstaff, J. W. M. Jones and M. Al-Lami, “The AO/ASIF Proximal Femoral Nail for the Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femoral Fracture,” Injury, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2002, pp. 395-399. doi:10.1016/S0020-1383(02)00008-6
 R. K. J. Simmermacher, A. M. Bosch and C. Ven der Werken, “The AO/ASIF Proximal Femoral Nail, a New Device for the Treatment of Unstable Proximal Femoral Fractures,” Injury, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1999, pp. 327-332. doi:10.1016/S0020-1383(99)00091-1