Outfall alternatives are evaluated for a municipal wastewater treatment facility that discharges effluent at the shoreline of an urban lake. Occurrence of plumes of poorly diluted effluent in adjoining portions of the lake is described. Alternatives considered include outfalls over a range of depth and various diffuser designs. Benefits and impacts on lake stratification and dissolved oxygen are evaluated for an array of design alternatives with a model which links a far field hydrothermal and transport submodel with a near field buoyant plume submodel. Outfall design features are described that: 1) reduce shoreline discharge of bypass flow of partially treated wastewater during major runoff events; 2) eliminate plumes of poorly diluted effluent; and 3) reduce loading of the effluent to the upper waters. A deep (10 to 14 m) outfall with a multiport diffuser would reduce the loading of the facility’s effluent to the upper waters by approximately 40%, without noteworthy impact on stratification or dissolved oxygen.
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