ABSTRACT Biomimetic calcium phosphate (CaP) coating has been used successfully for protein delivery, but the release of protein from CaP coating is mainly dependent on the limited dissolution of the CaP coating and the passive diffusion of the protein in the CaP coating. In the present work, our aim is to improve the release behavior of protein from CaP coating and make it more controllable. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, our strategy is to tailor BSA release profiles by controlling the distribution of BSA in CaP coatings. To achieve this aim, BSA was added to a modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at different stages of coating formation to obtain tailored BSA release profiles. Sustained BSA release was obtained when BSA was added to m-SBF at the initial stage of the coating where the BSA was incorporated into the lattice structure of the coating. In contrast, a relatively faster release was observed when BSA was added during the later stage of coating formation where BSA was mainly adsorbed to the coating surface. As a result, the BSA release efficiency could be tailored by adding BSA into m-SBF at different coating formation stages. More importantly, the coating composition was not altered with the change of BSA adding times and all the beneficial properties of the biomimetic coating were reserved. Therefore, the BSA release from CaP coatings can be tailored by adjusting its distribution in the coating to achieve a more satisfactory release profile.
Cite this paper
nullX. Yu and M. Wei, "Controlling Bovine Serum Albumin Release From Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2011, pp. 28-35. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.21004.
 R. Narayanan, S. K. Seshadri, T. Y. Kwon and K. H. Kim, “Calcium Phosphate-Based Coatings on Titanium and Its Alloys,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B-Applied Biomaterials, Vol. 85B, No. 1, 2008, pp. 279- 299. doi:10.1002/jbm.b.30932
R. Z. LeGeros, “Properties of Osteoconductive Biomaterials: Calcium phosphates,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol. 395, 2002, pp. 81-98.
J. Weng, M. Wang and J. Y. Chen, “Plasma-Sprayed Calcium Phosphate Particles with High Bioactivity and Their Use in Bioactive Scaffolds,” Biomaterials, Vol. 23, No. 13, 2002, pp. 2623-2629.
J. G. C. Wolke, K. de Groot and J. A. Jansen, “In vivo Dissolution Behavior of Various RF Magnetron Sputtered Ca-P Coatings,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1998, pp. 524-530.
E. Milella, F. Cosentino, A. Licciulli and C. Massaro, “Preparation and Characterisation of Titania/Hydroxyapatite Composite Coatings Obtained by Sol-Gel Process,” Biomaterials, Vol. 22, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1425-1431.
F. Barrere, P. Layrolle, C. A. van Blitterswijk and K. de Groot, “Biomimetic Coatings on Titanium: A Crystal Growth Study of Octacalcium Phosphate,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2001, pp. 529-534. doi:10.1023/A:1011271713758
F. Barrere, P. Layrolle, C. A. van Blitterswijk, K. de Groot, “Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Ti6AI4V: A Crystal Growth Study of Octacalcium Phosphate and Inhibition by Mg2+ and HCO3,” Bone, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1999, pp. 107S-111S.
W.-Q. Yan, T. Nakamura, K. Kawanabe, S. Nishigochi, M. Oka and T. Kokubo, “Apatite Layer-Coated Titanium for Use as Bone Bonding Implants,” Biomaterials, Vol. 18, No. 17, 1997, pp. 1185-1190.
P. J. Li, C. Ohtsuki, T. Kokubo, K. Nakanishi, N. Soga and K. Degroot, “The Role of Hydrated Silica, Titania, and Alumina in Inducing Apatite on Implants,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1994, pp. 7-15. doi:10.1002/jbm.820280103
T. Kokubo and H. Takadama, “How Useful is SBF in Predicting in Vivo Bone Bioactivity?” Biomaterials, Vol. 27, No. 15, 2006, pp. 2907-2915.
Y. Liu, L. Enggist, A. F. Kuffer, D. Buser and E. B. Hunziker, “The Influence of BMP-2 and Its Mode of Delivery on The Osteoconductivity of Implant Surfaces During the Early Phase of Osseointegration,” Biomaterials, Vol. 28, No. 16, 2007, pp. 2677-2686.
H. Shen, J. Tan and W. M. Saltzman, “Surface-Mediated Gene Transfer from Nanocomposites of Controlled Text- ure,” Nature Materials, Vol. 3, No. 8, 2004, pp. 569-574
Y. Liu, E. B. Hunziker, N. X. Randall, K. de Groot and P. Layrolle, “Proteins Incorporated into Biomimetically Prepared Calcium Phosphate Coatings Modulate Their Mechanical Strength and Dissolution Rate,” Biomaterials, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2003, pp. 65-70.
Y. Liu, R. O. Huse, K. de Groot, D. Buser and E. B. Hunziker, “Delivery Mode and Efficacy of BMP-2 in Association with Implants,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2007, pp. 84-89.
P. Laffargue, P. Fialdes, P. Frayssinet, M. Rtaimate, H. F. Hildebrand and X. Marchandise, “Adsorption and Release of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I on Porous Tricalcium Phosphate Implant,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2000, pp. 415-421.
Y. Liu, J. P. Li, E. B. Hunziker and K. de Groot, “Incorporation of Growth Factors into Medical Devices via Biomimetic Coatings,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 364, No. 1838, 2006, pp. 233-248.
T. Y. Liu, S. Y. Chen, D. M. Liu and S. C. Liou, “On the Study of BSA-Loaded Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite Nano-Carriers for Controlled Drug Delivery,” Journal of Control Release, Vol. 107, No. 1, 2005, pp. 112-121.
Y. Liu, P. Layrolle, J. de Bruijn, C. van Blitterswijk and K. de Groot, “Biomimetic Coprecipitation of Calcium Phosphate and Bovine Serum Albumin on Titanium Alloy,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2001, pp. 327-335.
C. Du, G. B. Schneider, R. Zaharias, C. Abbott, D. Seabold, C. Stanford and J. Moradian-Oldak, “Apatite/ Amelogenin Coating on Titanium Promotes Osteogenic Gene Expression,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 84, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1070-1074.
H. B. Wen, J. R. de Wijn, C. A. van Blitterswijk and K. de Groot, “Incorporation of Bovine Serum Albumin in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium,” The Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1999, pp. 245-252.
H. Qu and M. Wei, “The Effect of Temperature and Initial Ph on Biomimetic Apatite Coating,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research—Part B Applied Bio- materials, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2008, pp. 204-212.
H. S. Azevedo, I. B. Leonor, C. M. Alves and R. L. Reis, “Incorporation of Proteins and Enzymes at Different Stages of the Preparation of Calcium Phosphate Coatings on a Degradable Substrate by a Biomimetic Metho- dology,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2005, pp. 169-179.
M. Stigter, J. Bezemer, K. de Groot and P. Layrolle, “Incorporation of Different Antibiotics into Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Implants, Release and Antibiotic Efficacy,” Journal of Controlled Release, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2004, pp. 127-137.
M. Stigter, K. de Groot and P. Layrolle, “Incorporation of Tobramycin into Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium,” Biomaterials, Vol. 23, No. 20, 2002, pp. 4143-4153. doi:10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00157-6
A. Oyane, Y. Yokoyama, M. Uchida and A. Ito, “The Formation of an Antibacterial Agent-Apatite Composite Coating on a Polymer Surface Using a Metastable Calcium Phosphate Solution,” Biomaterials, Vol. 27, No. 17, 2006, pp. 3295-3303.
X. Yu, H. Qu, D. Knecht and M. Wei, “Incorporation of Bovine Serum Albumin into Biomimetic Coatings on Titanium with High Loading Efficacy and Its Release Behavior,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2009, pp. 287-294.
F. Barrere, C. M. van der Valk, R. A. Dalmeijer, C. A. van Blitterswijk, K. de Groot and P. Layrolle, “In vitro and in vivo Degradation of Biomimetic Octacalcium Phosphate and Carbonate Apatite Coatings on Titanium Implants,” The Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2003, pp. 378-387.
P. Ducheyne and Q. Qiu, “Bioactive Ceramics: The Effect of Surface Reactivity on Bone Formation and Bone Cell Function,” Biomaterials, Vol. 20, No. 23-24, 1999, pp. 2287-2303. doi:10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00181-7
Z. J. Wu, B. Feng, J. Weng, S. X. Qu, J. X. Wang and X. Lu, “Biomimetic Apatite Coatings on Titanium Copre- cipitated with Cephradine and Salviae Miltlorrhizae,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, Vol. 84B, No. 2, 2008, pp. 486-492.
K. Kandori, M. Saito, H. Saito, A. Yasukawa and T. Ishikawa, “Adsorption of Protein on Nonstoichiometric Calcium Strontium Hydroxyapatite,” Colloids and Surfaces a-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 94, No. 2-3, 1995, pp. 225-230.