The earliest American forest resource management plans date to the birth of the forestry profession around 1900. For the next half century, these management plans were essentially timber production management plans. Certainly, other forest values, especially watershed protection, were important parts of the planning. But not until the second half of the twentieth century did multiple-use and a wide array of forest values become normal components of a forest management plan. Within the last twenty-five years forest management plans have developed a forest stewardship or sustainable forest management foundation. That is, a forest resource management plan is now expected to consider an entire set of forest values, to have a long-term sustainability focus, and to meet a set of expected management and operational criteria. Often, the forest management plan is the basis of a forest certification scheme. The early forest management plans were primarily timber-based and thus had a commercial or financial focus. Today’s forest management plans are based on multiple forest values and may or may not have a financial focus. We contrast the traditional timber management plan with today’s sustainable forest management plan, realizing the basis of both plans is by definition the forest or the timber. Involving both timber harvesting activities and the operational foundation of the sustainable forest management plan is essentially a timber management plan. One cannot ignore the fact that all forest management plans accomplish silvicultural objectives via manipulation of timber density variables, like stocking and spacing. Management of a forest still involves timber harvests. Our discussion shows that the timber management plan is still very much alive and forms the basis of modern sustainable forest management plans.
Cite this paper
T. Straka, R. Tew and T. Cushing, "Consanguine Philosophies of Traditional Timber-Based and Contemporary Sustainability-Based Forest Resource Management Plans," Natural Resources, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 387-394. doi: 10.4236/nr.2013.45048.
 H. H. Chapman, “Forest Management,” J. B. Lyon Company, Albany, 1931.
 T. J. Straka, “Forest Resource Management Plans—A Landowner-Oriented Approach,” Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education,” Vol. 22, No. 2, 1993, pp. 111-115.
 H. A. Meyer, A. B. Recknagel, D. D. Stevenson and R. A. Bartoo, “Forest Management,” 2nd Edition, The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1961.
 K. P. Davis, “Forest Management: Regulation and Valuation,” 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1966.
 G. Pinchot, “Biltmore Forest, The Property of Mr. George W. Vanderbilt: An Account of Its Treatment, and the Results of the First Year’s Work,” The Lakeside Press, Chicago, 1893.
 I. F. Eldredge, “Management Plans with Special Reference to the National Forests,” United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 11, Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1928.
 B. T. Parry, H. J. Vaux and N. Dennis, “Changing Perceptions of Sustained-Yield Policy on the National Forests,” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 81, No. 3, 1983, pp. 150-154.
 W. A. Leuschner, “Introduction to Forest Resource Management,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.
 D. N. Bengston, T. J. Webb and D. P. Fan, “Shifting Forest Value Orientations in the United States, 1989-2001: A Computer Content Analysis,” Environmental Values, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2004, pp. 373-392.
 F. E. Olmsted, “A Working Plan for Forest Lands Near Pine Bluff, Arkansas,” United States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Forestry Bulletin Number 32, Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1902.
 T. H. Sherrard, “A Working Plan for Forest Lands in Hampton and Beaufort Counties, South Carolina,” United States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Forestry Bulletin Number 43, Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1903.
 L. S. Davis, K. N. Johnson, P. Bettinger and T. E. Howard, “Forest Management: To Sustain Ecological, Economic, and Social Values,” 4th Edition, Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove, 2001.
 P. Bettinger, K. Boston, J. P. Siry and D. L. Grebner, “Forest Management and Planning,” Academic Press, Burlington, 2009.
 W. B. Kessler, H. Salwasser, C. W. Cartwright Jr. and J. A. Caplan, “New Perspectives for Sustainable Natural Resources Management,” Ecological Applications, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1992, pp. 221-225. doi:10.2307/1941856
 A. B. Recknagel, “The Theory and Practice of Working Plans (Forest Organization), John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1913.
 J. Buongiorno and J. K. Gilless, “Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management,” Academic Press, Burlington, 2003.
 W. D. Klemperer, “Forest Resource Economics and Finance,” McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, 1996.
 W. A. Leuschner, “Forest Regulation, Harvest Scheduling, and Planning Techniques,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1990.
 W. A. Duerr, “Fundamentals of Forestry Economics,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1960.
 W. A. Duerr, “Introduction to Forest Resource Economics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1993.
 R. A. Sedjo, Ed., “Investments in Forestry: Resources, Land Use, and Public Policy,” Westview Press, Boulder, 1985.
 F. C. Zinkhan, W. R. Sizemore, G. H. Mason and T. J. Ebner, “Timberland Investments: A Portfolio Perspective,” Timber Press, Portland, 1992.
 T. J. Straka and C. J. Childers, “Consulting Foresters’ view of Professional Forestry Education,” Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2006, pp. 48-52. doi:10.3390/su2020604
 T. J. Straka, “Evolution of Sustainability in American Forest Resource Management Planning in the Context of the American Forest Management Textbook,” Sustainability, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2009, pp. 838-854.
 T. J. Straka and P. A. Layton, “Natural Resource Management: Life Cycle Assessment and Forest Certification and Sustainability Issues,” Sustainability, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, pp. 604-621.
 M. P. Washburn, S. B. Jones and L. A. Nielsen, “Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners: Building the Business Case for Sustainable Forestry,” Island Press, Washington DC, 1999.
 V. A. Sample and S. Anderson, “Common Goals for Sustainable Forest Management: Divergence and Reconvergence of American and European Forestry,” Forest History Society, Durham, 2008.
 V. A. Sample and R. A. Sedjo, “Sustainability in Forest Management: An Evolving Concept,” International Advances in Economic Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1996, pp. 165-173. doi:10.1007/BF02295056
 T. J. Straka, “Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem,” Forests, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 660-706.
 C. M. Watts, L. S. Pile, and T. J. Straka, “Sustainability and Forest Certification as a Framework for a Capstone Forest Resource Management Plans Course,” Open Journal of Forestry, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2012, pp.159-166.
 H. K. Steen, “History of Sustained Yield Forestry: A Symposium,” Forest History Society, Durham, 1984.
 J. L. Innes, G. M. Hickey and H. F. Hoen, “Forestry and Environmental Change: Socioeconomic Political Dimensions,” CABI Publishing, New York, 2005.
 C. Maser, “Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics,” St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, 1994.
 D. W. Floyd, “Forest Sustainability: The History, The Challenge, the Promise,” The Forest History Society, Durham, 2002.
 D. W. Floyd, S. L. Vonhof and H. E. Seyfand, “Forest Sustainability: A Discussion Guide for Professional Resource Managers,” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 99, No. 2, 2001, pp. 8-28.
 D. B. Lindenmayer and J. F. Franklin, “Towards Forest Sustainability,” Island Press, Washington DC, 2003.
 B. Shindler and L. A. Cramer, “Shifting Public Values for Forest Management: Making Sense of Wicked Problems,” Western Journal of Applied Forestry, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1999, pp. 28-34.
 C. D. Oliver, “Sustainable Forestry: What Is It? How Do We Achieve It?” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 101, No. 5, 2003, pp. 8-14.
 USDA Forest Service, “Forest Stewardship Program National Standards and Guidelines,” USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Cooperative Forestry, Washington DC, 2009.
 D. R. Russell Jr. and S. Stein, “Planning for Forest Stewardship: A Desk Guide,” USDA Forest Stewardship Program FS-733, 2002.
 Pinchot Institute for Conservation, “A Comparison of Guidelines for the Forest Stewardship Program and Other Standards of Sustainable Forest Management,” Pinchot Institute for Conservation, Washington DC, 2008.
 F. M. Melfi, T. J. Straka, A. P. Marsinko and J. L. Baumann, “Landowner Attitudes toward South Carolina’s Forest Stewardship Program,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1997, pp. 158-163.
 T. G. Thrift, T. J. Straka, A. P. Marsinko and J. L. Baumann, “Forest Resource Management Plans: Importance of Plan Components to Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowners in South Carolina,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1997, pp. 164-167.
 S. E. Daniels, M. A. Kilgore, M. G. Jacobson, J. L. Greene and T. J. Straka, “Examining the Compatibility between Forestry Incentive Programs in the US and the Practice of Sustainable Forest Management,” Forests, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2010, pp. 49-64. doi:10.3390/f1010049
 M. A. Kilgore, J. L. Greene, M. G, Jacobson, T. J. Straka and S. E. Daniels, “The Influence of Financial Incentives in Promoting Sustainable Forestry on the Nation’s Family Forests,” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 105, No. 4, 2007, pp. 184-191.
 B. Cashore, G. Auld and D. Newson, “Governing through Markets: Forest Certification and the Emergence of NonState Authority,” Yale University Press, New Haven, 2004.
 E. Hanson, R. Fletcher, B. Cashore and C. McDermott, “Forest Certification in North America,” Oregon State University Extension Service, Corvallis, 2006.
 C. Maser and W. Smith, “Forest Certification in Sustainable Development: Healing the Landscape,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001.
 E. Rametsteiner and M. Simula, “Forest Certification— An Instrument to Promote Sustainable Forest Management,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 67, No. 1, 2003, pp. 87-98.
 V. M. Vianna, J. Erwin, R. Z. Donovan, C. Elliott and H. Gholz, “Certification of Forest Products: Issues and Perspectives,” Island Press, Washington DC, 1996.
 K. Vogt, B. C. Larson, J. C. Gordon, D. J. Vogt and A. Fanzeres, “Forest Certification: Roots, Issues, Challenges, and Benefits,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000.
 M. Williams, “Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis, an Abridgement,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2006.
 P. Perera and R. P. Vlosky, “A History of Forest Certification,” Forest Products Development Center Working Paper No. 71, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2006.
 D. Klooster, “Environmental Certification of Forests: The Evolution of Environmental Governance in a Commodity Network,” Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2005, pp. 403-417. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.005
 K. von Gadow, T. Pukkala and M. Tomé, “Sustainable Forest Management,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002.
 P. B. Durst, P. J. McKenzie, C. L. Brown and S. Appanah, “Challenges Facing Certification and Eco-Labeling of Forest Products in Developing Countries,” International Forestry Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2006, pp. 193-200.
 B. Holvoet and B. Muys, “Sustainable Forest Management Worldwide: A Comparative Assessment of Standards,” International Forestry Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004, pp. 99-122. doi:10.1505/ifor.22.214.171.124388
 G. T. McDonald and M. B. Lane, “Converging Global Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management,” Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2004, pp. 63-70.
 C. Fischer, F. Aguilar, P. Jawahar and R. Sedjo, “Forest Certification: Toward Common Standards,” Resources for the Future, Washington DC, 2005.
 World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, “Our Forests, Our Future,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999.
 A. E. Patterson, “Technique of Forest Management Plan Preparation,” Self-published, Athens, 1960.
 S. Loveland, “Good Forestry Starts with a Good Plan,” Forest Landowner, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2003, pp. 14-15.
 M. Webb, “The Forest Management Plan: Key to the Future,” Forest Landowner, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2001, pp. 23-25.
 T. J. Straka, “Forest Management Plans for Small Holdings,” Forest Landowner, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1997, pp. 34-35, 38-39.
 B. Hatcher, “The Management Plan,” In: M. J. Wallace and A. Londo, Eds., Managing the Family Forest in Mississippi, Mississippi State University, Department of Forestry, Mississippi State, 2008, pp. 8-15.
 R. M. Shaffer, “A Guide to Harvest Planning,” The Consultant, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1992, pp. 12-15.
 E. C. Frazer III, “Effective Forest Management,” Forest Farmer, Vol. 42, No. 5, 1983, pp. 18-21.
 L. K. Larson, “Managing Small Forest Holdings,” Forest Farmer, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1973, pp. 9, 28.
 E. C. Frazer III and P. Hodgkins, “Timber Management Plans for Modest-Sized Landowners,” Forest Farmer, Vol. 36, No. 5, 1977, pp. 11-13.