In this paper, an experimental investigation is performed using acoustic emission (AE) technique to study the behaviour of crack initiation and propagation of woven carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites under static tensile loading. Three laminates with three plies each were manufactured and tested under tensile static loading. Damage was being monitored using AE technique with instantaneous AE hits energies being used as the damage parameter. Results showed that angle ply laminates experienced crack initiations at about 50% of ultimate tensile strength whereas cross ply laminates and non-conventional angle ply laminates having one cross ply laminate experienced initiation of cracks at about a third of ultimate tensile strength. This early cracks initiation is believed to be caused by the presence of 90° plies that cannot take much load transversely.
Cite this paper
M. Bourchak, A. Khan, S. Badr and W. Harasani, "Acoustic Emission Characterization of Matrix Damage Initiation in Woven CFRP Composites," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 509-515. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.49062.
 R. K. Miller and P. McIntire, “Nondestructive Testing Handbook; v.5,” American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., 1987
 International ASTM Standard, “Test Method for Examination of Seamless, Gas Filled, Pressure Vessels Using Acoustic Emission,” E1419-09.
 M. R. Kaphle and A. Tan, “Source Location of Acoustic Emission Waves for Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges,” In: J. Sumeet and L. Wang, Eds., Infrastructure Research Theme Postgraduate Student Conference 2009: Rethinking Sustainable Development: Planning, Engineering, Design and Managing Urban Infrastructure, 26 March 2009, Brisbane.
 A. A. Pollock, “Acoustic Emission Inspection, Metals handbook,” ASM International, Vol. 17, 1989, pp. 278-294.
 M. Wevers and M. Surgeon, “Acoustic Emission and Composites,” Comprehensive Composite Materials, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2000, pp. 345-357.
 V. Lopresto, C. Leone, G. Caprino and I. de Iorio, “Composite Materials Characterization by Acoustic Emission Technique,” Department of Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-2.
 M. Bourchak, I. R. Farrow, I. P. Bond, C. W. Rowland and F. Menan, “Acoustic Emission Energy as a Fatigue Damage Parameter for CFRP Composites,” International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2007, pp. 457-470.
 I. M. De Rosa, C. Santulli and F. Sarasini, “Acoustic Emission for Monitoring the Mechanical Behaviour of Natural Fibre Composites: A Literature Review,” Journal of Composites: Part A, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1456-1469. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.04.030
 T. M. Roberts and M. Talebzadeh, “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Propagation,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2003, pp. 695-712. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(02)00064-0
 W. Hufenbach, H. Richter, A. Langkamp and R. Bohm, “Application of Acoustic Emission Analysis for Damage Investigations in Fibre and Textile Reinforced Composites,” TU Dresden, Institute of Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1-10.
 V. Lopresto, C. Leone, G. Caprino and I. de Iorio, “Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals Produced by Different CFRP Laminates,” ICCM-17, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-10.
 P. F. Liu, J. K. Chu, Y. L. Liu and J. Y. Zheng, “A Study on the Failure Mechanisms of Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Composite Laminates Using Acoustic Emission,” Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2011, pp. 228-235.
 Y. Mizutani, K. Nagashima, M. Takemoto, K. Ono, “Fracture Mechanism Characterization of Cross-Ply Carbon-Fibre Composites Using Acoustic Emission Analysis,” Journal of NDT&E International, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2000, pp. 101-110. doi:10.1016/S0963-8695(99)00030-4
 M. Johnson and P. Gudmundson, “Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of Acoustic Emission Transients in Composite Laminates,” Journal of Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2001, pp. 1367-1378. doi:10.1016/S0266-3538(01)00036-7
 M. May, R. Pullin, M. Eaton, C. Featherston and S. R. Hallett, “An Advanced Model for Initiation and Propagation of Damage Under Fatigue Loading—part II: Matrix Cracking Validation Cases,” Journal of Composite Structures, Vol. 93, No. 1, 2011, pp. 2350-2357.
 T. C. Truong, D. S. Ivanov, D. V. Klimshin, S. V. Lomov and I. Verpoest, “Carbon Composites Based on MultiAxial Multi-Ply Stitched Preforms. Part 7: Mechanical Properties and Damage Observations in Composites with Sheared Reinforcement,” Journal of Composites: Part A, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1380-1393.
 T. Y. Kam and F. M. Lai, “Experimental and Theoretical Predictions of First Ply Failure Strength of Laminated Composite Plates,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998, pp. 2379-2395.
 S. Havaldar, R. Sharma, S. Jain, R. Kumar, A. Jaiswal, “Effects of Angle Ply Orientation on Dynamic Characteristics of Composite Laminates,” International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Application, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, pp. 120-122.
 V. Lopresto, C. Leone, G. Caprino, I. de Iorio and I. Papa, “Thick Layer Equally Oriented Effect on Acoustic Emission Behaviour of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Laminates,” Department of Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II,” Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-5.
 International ASTM Standard, “Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials,” D3039/D3039M-08.
 International ASTM Standard, “Hsu-Nielsen, Pencil lead break AE test,” E976-94.
 J. M. Berthelot and J. Razi, “Acoustic Emission in Carbon Fibre Composites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1990, pp. 411-428.
 H. D. Yun, W. C. Choi and S. Y. Seo, “Acoustic Emission Activities and Damage Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with CFRP Sheets,” NDT and E International, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2010, pp. 615-628.
 H. Hamada, N. Oya, K. Yamashita and Z. I. Maekawa, “Tensile Strength and Its Scatter of Unidirectional Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1997, p. 119.