Back
 FNS  Vol.4 No.9 B , September 2013
Study of the Nutritional Value and Hygienic Quality of Local Infant Flours from Chad, with the Aim of Their Use for Improved Infant Flours Preparation
Abstract: This study aims to develop infant flours fortified with iron and vitamin A, taken from local products such as powder from dried Moringa oleifera leaves and pulps of Parkia biglobosa to improve the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 24 months. Chemical analyses show that, for 100 g of local flours destined for children, there are adequate protein levels (between 7.00 ± 0.44 and 12.69 ± 0.44 g) and fat content (between 7.52 ± 0.35 and 16.26 ± 0.84 g), but that there are low levels of b-carotene and certain micronutrients Zn (0.67 ± 0.01 to 2.51 ± 0.19 mg), Fe (7.11 ± 0.90 to 12.70 ± 0.56 mg), Ca (0.67 ± 0.01 to 2.51 ± 0.19 mg), Mg (6.79 ± 0.19 to 24.99 ± 1.75 mg). Analyses of minerals and vitamins showed that Moringa oleifera leaf-powder (per 100 g) is rich in calcium (1443.90 ± 11.03 mg), magnesium (176.72 ± 0.73 mg), iron (53.75 ± 5.07 mg), zinc (17.58 ± 0.89 mg) and b-carotene (624.40 ± 0.41 μg ER). 100 g of Parkia biglobosa’s pulps is rich in magnesium (73.00 ± 1.14 mg), iron (14.82 ± 2.49 mg), zinc (7.79 ± 0.44 mg) and vitamin C (75.29 ± 0.00 mg). In conclusion, we believe that these two ingredients can be effectively used to fortify local infant flours in vitamin A and iron and contribute to eradicating malnutrition due to micronutrients deficiencies.
Cite this paper: B. Kayalto, C. Zongo, R. Compaore, A. Savadogo, B. Otchom and A. Traore, "Study of the Nutritional Value and Hygienic Quality of Local Infant Flours from Chad, with the Aim of Their Use for Improved Infant Flours Preparation," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 59-68. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A2009.
References

[1]   UNICEF, “Sommet Mondial pour les Enfants,” Nations Unies, New York, 29-30 September 1990.

[2]   SCN, “(United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition). Fifth Report on the World Nutrition Situation: Nutrition for Improved Development Outcomes,” SCN, Geneva, 2004.

[3]   FAO, “L’état de l’Insécurité Alimentaire dans le Monde 2010. Combattre l’Insécurité Alimentaire lors des Crises prolongées,” 2010.

[4]   INSEED, “Institut National des Statistiques, des Etudes Economiques et de la Démographie. Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat du Tchad, RGPHT2,” N’Djaména, République du Tchad, 2009.

[5]   SNRP II, République du Tchad, “Document de Stratégie de Croissance et de Réduction de la Pauvreté: SNRP2 2008-2011,” N’Djaména, Avril 2008.

[6]   O. Yomadji-Outengar, “Fabrication de Farines Enrichies à Partir de Produits Locaux au Tchad,” Centre National de Nutrition et de Technologie Alimentaire (CNNTA), N’djamena, Tchad, 1994.

[7]   O. B. Hamza, C. Guiral, D. D. Esaie, K. Ndingambaye, P. Diallo, G. Batakao, N. Naibé, N. D. Syntiche and H. Noumassei, “Rapport Descriptif de l’Enquête Nationale sur l’Etat Nutritionnel et l’Alimentation au Tchad,” Ministère de la Santé Publique, République du Tchad, 2002.

[8]   WHO, “Iron Deficiency Anemia, Assessment, Prevention, and Control, a Guide for Program Managers,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2001.

[9]   FAO, “Profil Nutritionnel du Tchad—Division de la Nutrition et de la Protection des Consommateurs,” FAO, 2009.

[10]   S. Grantham-McGregor, L. Fernald and K. Sethuraman, “Effects of Health and Nutrition on Cognitive and Behavioral Development of Children in the First Three Years of Life. Part 2: Infections and Micronutrient Deficiencies: Iodine, Iron and Zinc,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1999, pp. 76-99.

[11]   World Health Organization, “The WHO/UNICEF Joint Meeting on Infant and Young Child Feeding,” WHO, Geneva, 1979.

[12]   S. de Pee and M. W. Bloem, “Current and Potential Role of Specially Formulated Foods and Food Supplements for Preventing Malnutrition among 6to 23-Month-Old Children and for Treating Moderate Malnutrition among 6to 59-Month-Old Children,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 30, Suppl. 3, 2009, pp. 434-463.

[13]   T. Traore, “Elaboration et évaluation d’une Stratégie d’Amélioration de l’Alimentation de Complément des Jeunes Enfants au Burkina Faso,” Thèse de Doctorat Unique en Nutrition et Sciences des Aliments, Université de Ouagadougou, UFR-SVT, CRSBAN, 2005.

[14]   AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis,” 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 1990, pp. 808,831-835,1113.

[15]   American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS), “Official Methods and Recommended Practices,” 4th Edition, 1990.

[16]   J. D. Fox and J. F. Robyt, “Miniaturization of Three Carbohydrates Analyzes Using a Microplate Reader,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 195, No. 1, 1991, pp. 93-96. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(91)90300-I

[17]   M. Pinta, “Méthodes de Référence pour la Détermination des éléments Minéraux dans les Végétaux. Détermination des éléments Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn et Cu par Absorption Atomique,” Oléagineux, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1973, pp. 87-92.

[18]   A. L. Merrill and B. K. Watt, “Energy Value of Foods: Basis and Derivation,” Agriculture Handbook, Washington DC, ARS United States Department of Agriculture, No. 74, 1973.

[19]   C. de Souza, Y. Ameyapoh, S. D. Karou, K. T. Anani, M. L. Kpodar and M. Gbeassor, “Assessing Market-Sold Remedies in Lomé (Togo) for Hygienic Quality,” Biotechnology Research International, Vol. 2011, 2010, Article ID: 572521.

[20]   M. A. Zinnah, M. R. Bari, M. T. Islam, M. T. Hossain, M. T. Rahman, M. H. Haque, S. A. M. Babu, R. P. Ruma and M. A. Islam, “Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolated from Samples of Different Biological and Environmental Sources,” Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 25-32.

[21]   C. Mouquet, O. Bruyeron and S. Trèche, “Caractéristiques d’une Bonne Farine Infantile,” Bulletin du Réseau, Technologie et partenariat en Agroalimentaire (TPA), No. 15, 1998, pp. 8-11.

[22]   F. Tchibindat and S. Treche, “Vitafort : Une Farine Infantile de Haute Densité énergétique au Congo,” Techniques 724, OMS, Genève, 1995.

[23]   D. Cissé, “Utilisation des Aliments de Complément dans la Lutte Contre l’Anémie par Carence en fer chez les Enfants au Sénégal. Etude de la Biodisponibilité du fer, essais d’Enrichissement et de Supplémentation Alimentaires,” Thèse de Doctorat de 3ème Cycle de Biologie Animale, Spécialité: Nutrition et Alimentation, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, 1997.

[24]   M. Ndong, S. Wade, N. Dossou, A. T. Guiro and R. Diagne Gning, “Valeur Nutritionnelle du Moringa Oleifera, étude de la Biodisponibilité du fer, effet de l’Enrichissement de Divers Plats Traditionnels Sénégalais avec la poudre des Feuilles,” African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1-17.

 
 
Top