Cosmology Should Directly Use the Doppler’s Formula to Calculate the Red Shift of Ia Supernova

—The Proofs That Metric Red Shift Is Inapplicable and Dark Energy Does Not Exist

—The Proofs That Metric Red Shift Is Inapplicable and Dark Energy Does Not Exist

ABSTRACT

The Doppler formula
should be used directly to calculate red shift of Cosmology. The first
is gravity, the second is the Doppler’s effect and the third is the Compton scattering. The red shift of cosmology is considered to
be caused by the receding motions of celestial bodies, of which essence is the
Doppler’s effect. However, the basic formula used to calculate
the relationship between red shift and distance for Ia supernova in cosmology is z+1= * R*(

Cite this paper

X. Mei and P. Yu, "Cosmology Should Directly Use the Doppler’s Formula to Calculate the Red Shift of Ia Supernova

—The Proofs That Metric Red Shift Is Inapplicable and Dark Energy Does Not Exist,"*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 303-317. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33036.

X. Mei and P. Yu, "Cosmology Should Directly Use the Doppler’s Formula to Calculate the Red Shift of Ia Supernova

—The Proofs That Metric Red Shift Is Inapplicable and Dark Energy Does Not Exist,"

References

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[1] S. Perlmutter, et al., “Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae,” APJ, Vol. 517, No. 2, 1999, p. 565. doi:10.1086/307221

[2] B. Leibundgut, et al., “Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant,” The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 116, No. 3, 1998, p. 1009. doi:10.1086/ 300499

[3] E. W. Kolb and M. S. Turner, “The Early Universe,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Boston, 1990.

[4] X. Mei, “The R-W Metric Has No Constant Curvature When Scalar Factor R(t) Changes with Time,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2011, pp. 177-182.

[5] S. M. Carroll and W. H. Press, “The Cosmology Constant,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 30, 1992, pp. 499-542. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.30.090192.002435

[6] E. A. Milne, “A Newtonian Expanding Universe, General Relativity and Gravitation,” Springer Netherlands, Berlin, 2000.

[7] X. Mei and P. Yu, “Revised Newtonian Formula of Gravity and Equation of Cosmology in Flat Space-time Transformed from Schwarzschild Solution,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012, pp. 6-18.

[8] L. Liao and Z. Zheng, “General Relativity,” 2nd Edition, Higher Education Publishing Company, Beijing, 2004.

[9] S. Weinberg, “Gravitation and Cosmology,” John Wiley, New Jersey, 1972.