Mass as the Fifth Dimension of the Universe

Affiliation(s)

Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University (IAU)-Varamin-Pishva Branch, Tehran, Iran.

Department of Physics, University Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University (IAU)-Varamin-Pishva Branch, Tehran, Iran.

Department of Physics, University Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Newton considered three-dimensional universe endowed with flat space Euclidean
geometry, and treated the time as an outside parameter and established his
dynamics of the universe. Einstein along with space, considered time, and generated
a four-dimensional universe endowed with non-Euclidean curved space-time
geometry with time as its fourth dimension, and set up his field equations.
Schwarzschild solved Einstein’s field equations around a star in space, which
is, otherwise, flat, and obtained a solution. We, along with space and time,
considered mass which also included energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy
equivalence relation: *E* = *mc*^{2},
and generated a five-dimensional universe with the mass as its fifth dimension,
and solved the Einstein’s field equations, in some simple cases, and obtained
solutions around a star in space, which is otherwise, flat.

Cite this paper

B. Nikouravan and J. Rawal, "Mass as the Fifth Dimension of the Universe,"*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 257-259. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33030.

B. Nikouravan and J. Rawal, "Mass as the Fifth Dimension of the Universe,"

References

[1] A. Einstein, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” Annalen der Physik, Vol. 17, No. 891, 1905, p. 50.

[2] A. Einstein, et al., “The Principle of Relativity: A Collection of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativity,” Dover, Kent, 1952.

[3] K. Schwarzschild, “On the Gravitational Field of a Mass Point According to Einstein’s Theory,” Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl, Vol. 3, 1916, pp. 189-196.

[4] T. Kaluza, “Zum Unitatsproblem der Physik,” Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. K, Vol. 1, 1921, p. 966.

[5] O. Klein, “Quantentheorie und Fünfdimensionale Relativit?tstheorie,” Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 37, No. 12, 1926, pp. 895-906. doi:10.1007/BF01397481

[6] J. P. De Leon, “Cosmological Models in a Kaluza-Klein Theory with Variable Rest Mass,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1988, pp. 539-550. doi:10.1007/BF00758909

[7] P. S. Wesson, “Five-Dimensional Physics: Classical and Quantum Consequences of Kaluza-Klein Cosmology,” World Scientific, Singapore City, 2006.

[1] A. Einstein, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” Annalen der Physik, Vol. 17, No. 891, 1905, p. 50.

[2] A. Einstein, et al., “The Principle of Relativity: A Collection of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativity,” Dover, Kent, 1952.

[3] K. Schwarzschild, “On the Gravitational Field of a Mass Point According to Einstein’s Theory,” Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., Phys. Math. Kl, Vol. 3, 1916, pp. 189-196.

[4] T. Kaluza, “Zum Unitatsproblem der Physik,” Sitz. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. K, Vol. 1, 1921, p. 966.

[5] O. Klein, “Quantentheorie und Fünfdimensionale Relativit?tstheorie,” Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 37, No. 12, 1926, pp. 895-906. doi:10.1007/BF01397481

[6] J. P. De Leon, “Cosmological Models in a Kaluza-Klein Theory with Variable Rest Mass,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1988, pp. 539-550. doi:10.1007/BF00758909

[7] P. S. Wesson, “Five-Dimensional Physics: Classical and Quantum Consequences of Kaluza-Klein Cosmology,” World Scientific, Singapore City, 2006.