Nexus: A Quantum Theory of Space-Time, Gravity and the Quantum Vacuum

Author(s)
Stuart Marongwe

ABSTRACT

One of the main problems of contemporary physics is to find a quantum description of gravity. This present approach attempts to remedy the problem through the quantization of a finite but large flat Minkowski space-time by means of Fourier expansion of the displacement four vector. By applying second quantization techniques, space-time emerges as a superposition of space-time eigen states or lattices of quantized space-time vibrations also known as gravitons. Each lattice element four vector is a graviton and traces out an elementary four volume (lattice cell). The stress-momentum tensor of each graviton defines its curvature and also the curvature of the associated lattice as described by General Relativity. The eigen states of space-time are found to be separated by a quantum of energy equal to the product of the Hubble constant and the Planck constant. The highest energy state is at Planck energies. This paper also shows that gravitons can be absorbed and emitted by the space-time lattice changing the volume of its primitive cells and that particles of observable matter are associated with a graviton whose frequency is equal to the particle’s Compton frequency which the lattice can absorb producing a perturbation in the lattice. The space-time lattice is found to be unstable and decays by radiating low energy gravitons of energy equal to the product of the Hubble constant and the Planck constant. This decay causes the space-time superstructure to expand. The graviton is seen a composite spin 2 particle made from a combination of spin half components of the displacement four vector elements. The spin symmetry of its constituent elements can breakdown to give rise to other vector or scalar bosons. Dark Matter is seen as a consequence of Bose-Einstein statistics of gravitons which results in some regions of the lattice having more energy than others.

Cite this paper

S. Marongwe, "Nexus: A Quantum Theory of Space-Time, Gravity and the Quantum Vacuum,"*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 236-242. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33028.

S. Marongwe, "Nexus: A Quantum Theory of Space-Time, Gravity and the Quantum Vacuum,"

References

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[2] S. N. Gupta, “Quantum Theory of Gravitation,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1962.

[3] C. Rovelli and L. Smolin, “Knot Theory and Quantum Gravity,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 61.

[4] B. Dittrich and T. Thiemann, “Testing the Master Constraint Programme for Loop Quantum Gravity II. Finite Dimensional Systems Class,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 23, 2006, pp. 1067-1066.

[5] L. Smolin, “Newtonian Gravity in Loop Quantum Gravity,” 2010. arXiv:1001.3668[gr-qc]

[6] L. Susskind, “The Anthropic Landscape of String Theory,” 2003. arXiv:hep-th/0302219

[7] E. Witten, “String Theory Dynamics in Various Dimensions,” Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 443, No. 1, 1995, pp. 85-126. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(95)00158-O

[8] J. Polchinski, “String Theory,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998.

[9] P. W. Anderson, “String Theory Is the First Science in Hundreds of Years to Be Pursued in Pre-Baconian Fashion, without Any Adequate Experimental Guidance,” New York Times, 4 January 2005.

[10] L. Krauss, “String Theory [Is] Yet to Have Any Real Successes in Explaining or Predicting Anything Measurable,” New York Times, 8 November 2005.

[11] P. Woit, “String Theory: An Evaluation,” Columbia University, New York, 2001.

[12] P. Woit, “Not Even Wrong—The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law,” Basic Books, Jonathan Cape & New York, London, 2006.

[13] P. A. M. Dirac, “The Quantum Theory of the Electron,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Vol. 117, No. 778, 1928, pp. 610-624.

[14] M. Chaichian, D. L. Martinez and L. Lusanna, “Dirac’s Constrained Systems: The Classification of Second Class Constraints,” Annals of Physics, Vol. 232, No. 1, 1994, pp. 40-60. doi:10.1006/aphy.1994.1049

[15] R. Brauer and H. Weyl, “Spinors in n Dimensions,” American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1935, pp. 425-449. doi:10.2307/ 2371218

[16] A. Friedmann, “On the Curvature of Space,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 31, No. 12, 1999, pp. 1991-2000. doi:10.1023/A:1026751225741

[17] J. C. Baker, et al., “Detection of Cosmic Microwave Background Structure in a Second Field with the Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 308, No. 4, 1999, pp. 1173-1178.

[18] A. Riess, et al., “Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant,” The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 116, No. 3, 1998, pp. 1009-1038. doi:10.1086/300499

[19] R. V. Eotvos, D. Pekar and E. Fekete, “Beitr?ge zum Gesetze der Proportionalit?t von Tr?gheit und Gravit?t,” Annals of Physics, Vol. 373, No. 9, 1922, pp. 11-66. doi:10.1002/andp.19223730903

[20] L. Gordon, “Riemannian Space-Time, de Donder Conditions and Gravitational Field in Flat Space-Time,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2013, pp. 8-19. doi:10.4236/ijaa.2013.31002

[21] O. Aharony, S. S. Gubser, J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri and Y. Oz, “Large N Field Theories, String Theory and Gravity,” Physics Reports, Vol. 323, No. 3-4, 2000, pp. 183-386. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(99)00083-6

[22] C. G. Boehmer and T. Harko, “Can Dark Matter Be a Bose Einstein Condensate?” 2007. arXiv:0705.401v4[astro-ph]21

[23] A. Suárez, et al., “A Review on the Scalar Field/Bose Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Model,” 2011. arXiv:01302.0903v1[astro-phCO]

[24] J. Mielczarek, T. Stachowiak and M. Szydlowski, “Vortex in Axion Condensate as a Dark Matter Halo,” arXiv:0705.3017v3[astro-ph]

[25] C. Kittel, “Introduction to Solid State Physics,” 7th Edition, John Wiley& Sons Inc., New Jersey, 1996.

[26] T. Jacobson, “Thermodynamics of Spacetime: The Einstein Equation of State,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 75, No. 7, 1995, pp. 1260-1263. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1260

[27] E. P. Verlinde, “On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton,” JHEP, Vol. 29, 2011. doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2011)029

[28] S. W. Hawking, “Quantum Cosmology,” In: W. Stephen Hawking, Ed., 300 Years of Gravitation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 631-651.