WSN  Vol.5 No.8 , August 2013
Data Timed Sending (DTS) Energy Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks: Simulation and Testbed Verification
ABSTRACT
The Data Timed Sending (DTS) protocol contributes to the energy savings in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and prolongs the sensor nodes’ battery lifetime. DTS saves energy by transmitting short packets, without data payload, from the sensor nodes to the base station or the cluster head according to the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) scheduling. Placing the short packets into appropriate slots and subslots in the TDMA frames transfers the information about the measured values and node identity. This paper presents the proof of concept of the proposed DTS protocol and provides verification of the energy savings using the QualNet®; communication simulation platform (QualNet) and the SunTM Small Programmable Object Technology (Sun SPOT) testbed platform (for single hop and multi hop scenarios). The simulations and the testbed measurements confirm that the DTS protocol can provide energy savings up to 30% when compared with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard in unslotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA-CA) mode at 2.4 GHz frequency band.

Cite this paper
K. Chomu and L. Gavrilovska, "Data Timed Sending (DTS) Energy Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks: Simulation and Testbed Verification," Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 5 No. 8, 2013, pp. 158-167. doi: 10.4236/wsn.2013.58019.
References
[1]   S. K. Singh, M. P. Singh and D. K. Singh, “Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks—A Survey,” International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2010, pp. 63-83. doi:10.5121/ijcses.2010.1206

[2]   L. J. G. Villalba, A. L. S. Orozco, A. T. Cabrera and C. J. B. Abbas, “Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Sensors, Vol. 9, No. 11, 2009, pp. 8399-8421. doi:10.3390/s91108399

[3]   Y. Al-Obaisat and R. Braun, “On Wireless Sensor Networks: Architectures, Protocols, Applications, and Management,” Proceedings of the AusWireless 2006 Conference, Sydney, 13-16 March 2006, pp. 1-11.

[4]   A. Norouzi and A. Sertbas, “An Integrated Survey in Efficient Energy Management for WSN using Architecture Approach,” International Journal of Advanced Networking and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 968-977.

[5]   M. D. Francesco, G. Anastasi, M. Conti, S. K. Das and V. Neri, “Reliability and Energy-Efficiency in IEEE 802.15. 4/Zigbee Sensor Networks: An Adaptive and Cross-Layer Approach,” Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 29, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1508-1524. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2011.110902

[6]   S. K. Singh, M. P. Singh and D. K. Singh, “Energy-Efficient Homogeneous Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network,” International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010, pp. 49-61. doi:10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2304

[7]   M. Liu, J. Cao, G. Chen and X. Wang, “An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Sensors, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2009, pp. 445-462. doi:10.3390/s90100445

[8]   H. Abusaimeh and S. H. Yang, “Dynamic Cluster Head for Lifetime Efficiency in WSN,” International journal of Automation and Computing, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2009, pp. 48-54. doi:10.1007/s11633-009-0048-0

[9]   A. G. A. Elrahim, H. A. Elsayed, S. E. Ramly and M. M. Ibrahim, “An Energy Aware WSN Geographic Routing Protocol,” Universal Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2010, pp. 105-111.

[10]   C. Lenzen, T. Locher and R. Wattenhofer, “Tight Bounds for Clock Synchronization,” Journal of the ACM (JACM), Vol. 57, No. 2, 2010, Article No. 8. doi:10.1145/1667053.1667057

[11]   C. Lenzen, P. Sommer and R. Wattenhofer, “Optimal Clock Synchronization in Networks,” Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Berkeley, 4-6 November 2009, pp. 225-238. doi:10.1145/1644038.1644061

[12]   P. Sommer and R. Wattenhofer, “Gradient Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Network 2009, San Francisco, 13-16 April 2009, pp. 37-48.

[13]   S. Ganeriwal, R. Kumar and M. B. Srivastava, “Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Los Angeles, 5-7 November 2003, pp. 138-149. doi:10.1145/958491.958508

[14]   M. Maroti, B. K. G. Simon and A. Ledeczi, “The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Baltimore, 3-5 November 2004, pp. 39-49. doi:10.1145/1031495.1031501

[15]   S. Ganeriwal, D. Ganesan, H. Sim, V. Tsiatsis and M. B. Srivastava, “Estimating Clock Uncertainty for Efficient Duty-Cycling in Sensor Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2009, pp. 842-856. doi:10.1109/TNET.2008.2001953

[16]   M. O. Farooq and T. Kunz, “Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,” Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2011, pp. 5900-5930. doi:10.3390/s110605900

[17]   C. F. Garcia-Hernandez, P. H. Ibarguengoytia, J. Garcia-Hernandez and J. A. Perez-Diaz, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,” International Journal of Advanced Networking and Applications (IJANA), Vol. 7, No. 3, 2007, pp. 264-273.

[18]   K. Padmanabhan and P. Kamalakkannan, “A Study on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2011, pp. 517-529.

[19]   S. Ito and K. Yoshigoe, “Performance Evaluation of Consumed Energy-Type-Aware Routing (CETAR) for Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009, pp. 93-104.

[20]   R. Nallusamy and K. Duraiswamy, “Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Applications with Energy Efficient Routing Concepts—A Review,” Information Technology Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-10.

[21]   Z. G. Wan, Y. K. Tan and C. Yuen, “Review on Energy Harvesting and Energy Management for Sustainable Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Communication Technology, Jinan, 25-28 September 2011, pp. 362-367. doi:10.1109/ICCT.2011.6157897

[22]   W. Seah, Z. Eu and H. Tan, “Wireless Sensor Networks Powered by Ambient Energy Harvesting (WSN-HEAP)-Survey and Challenges,” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Wireless Communication, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronic Systems Technology, Aalborg, 17-20 May 2009, pp. 1-5. doi:10.1109/WIRELESSVITAE.2009.5172411

[23]   K. Chomu and L. Gavrilovka, “Data-Timed Sending Method—Solution for Higher Energy Efficiency,” Proceedings of the 25th National Symposium of Telecommunications and Computer Networks, Warsaw, 16-18 September 2009, pp. 1488-1497.

[24]   K. Chomu and L. Gavrilovka, “Synchronization Impact on the Performance of Data-Timed Sending (DTS) Based Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, Montreal, 14-17 June 2010, pp. 682-687. doi:10.1109/WOWMOM.2010.5534954

[25]   J. Polastre, R. Szewcyk, A. Mainwaring, D. Culler and J. Anderson, “Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring,” In: C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam and T. Znati, Eds., Wireless Sensor Networks, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2004, pp. 399-423.

[26]   B. Bates, A. Keating and R. Kinicki, “Energy Analysis of Four Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols,” Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Wireless and Pervasive Computing, Hong Kong, 23-25 February 2011, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1109/ISWPC.2011.5751321

[27]   IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Standard, IEEE Society, 2006.

[28]   N. F. Timmons and W. G. Scanlon, “Analysis of the Performance of IEEE 802.15.4 for Medical Sensor Body Area Networking,” Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON’04), Santa Clara, 4-7 October 2004, pp. 16-24. doi:10.1109/SAHCN.2004.1381898

[29]   X. Jiang, P. Dutta, D. Culler and I. Stoica, “Micro Power Meter for Energy Monitoring of Wireless Sensor Networks at Scale,” Proceedings of the 6th Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Cambridge, 25-27 April 2007, pp.186-195. doi:10.1145/1236360.1236386

[30]   Sun Microsystems, Inc., SunTM SPOT Theory of Operation, 2009. http://sunspotworld.com/docs/Red/SunSPOT-TheoryOfOperation.pdf

[31]   Sun Microsystems, Inc., SunTM SPOT Owner’s Manual, 2009. http://www.sunspotworld.com/docs/Red/SunSPOT-OwnersManual.pdf

[32]   Sun Microsystems, Inc., SunTM SPOT Small Programmable Object Technology (Sun SPOT) Developer’s Guide, 2009. http://www.sunspotworld.com/docs/Red/spot-developers-guide.pdf

[33]   2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee-ready RF Transceiver CC2420, Chipcon Products from Texas Instruments, Inc. 2010. http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/cc2420.pdf

 
 
Top