AS  Vol.4 No.9 , September 2013
Pre-harvest fruit bagging influences fruit color and quality of apple cv. Delicious
Abstract: An attempt was made to observe the effect of pre-harvest bagging with spun-bound fabric bags on color and quality of Delicious apple. Bagging was done about a month before harvesting and removed 3-day before harvesting. Bagged and non-bagged fruits were stored at 2℃ ± 1℃ and 90%-95% RH. Observations were recorded on color and fruit quality attributes such as total phenolics, AOX activity, fruit Ca contents, LOX activity, SSC and ascorbic acid contents at harvest and during storage. Our studies have revealed that bagged fruits have better color development (Hunter “a” = 52) than non-bagged fruits at harvest (Hunter “a” = 38), which declined slightly during storage. Similarly, at harvest, bagged fruits contained high amounts of Ca (5.38 mg/100g) and total phenolics (9.3 mg GAE/100gpulp) exhibited higher AOX activity (12.6 μmoles Trolox g-1), and had better SSC and ascorbic acid contents than non-bagged fruits, and there was a decline in all recorded parameters during storage. Bagged fruits exhibited lower LOX activity (1.38 μmoles min-1 g-1 FW) at harvest than non-bagged fruits (2.14 μmoles min-1 g-1 FW), indicating that non-bagged fruits were more senescent than bagged fruits. Further, LOX activity increased during storage both in bagged and non-bagged apples but increase in LOX activity was slower in bagged apples than in non-bagged apples.
Cite this paper: Sharma, R. , Pal, R. , Asrey, R. , Sagar, V. , Dhiman, M. and Rana, M. (2013) Pre-harvest fruit bagging influences fruit color and quality of apple cv. Delicious. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 443-448. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.49059.

[1]   Chadha, K.L. and Awasthi, R.P. (2005) The apple. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi.

[2]   Sharma, R.R., Singh, D. and Singh, R. (2009) Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables by microbial antagonists: A review. Biological Control, 50, 205-221. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.001

[3]   Kitagawa, H., Manabe, K. and Esguerra, E.B. (1992) Bagging of fruit on the tree to control disease. Acta Horticulturae, 321, 871-875.

[4]   Hofman, P.J., Smith, L.G., Joyce, D.C., Johnson, G.L. and Meiburg, G.F. (1997) Bagging of mango (Mangifera indica cv. “Keitt”) fruit influences fruit quality and mineral composition. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 12, 83-91. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(97)00039-2

[5]   Joyce, D.C., Beasley, D.R. and Shorter, A.J. (1997) Effect of pre-harvest bagging on fruit calcium levels, and storage and ripening characteristics of “Sensation” mangoes. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 37, 383-389. doi:10.1071/EA96074

[6]   Tyas, J.A., Hofman, P.J., Underhill, S.J.R. and Bell, K.L. (1998) Fruit canopy position and panicle bagging affects yield and quality of “Tai So” lychee. Scientia Horticulturae, 72, 203-213. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(97)00125-8

[7]   Amarante, C., Banks, N.H. and Max, S. (2002) Effect of pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality and Postharvest physiology of pears (Pyrus communis). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 30, 99-107. doi:10.1080/01140671.2002.9514204

[8]   Xu, H.X., Chen, J.W. and Xie, M. (2010) Effect of different light transmittance paper bags on fruit quality and antioxidant capacity in loquat. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 1783-1788.

[9]   Witney, G.W., Kushad, M.M. and Barden, J.A. (1991) Induction of bitter pit in apple. Scientia Horticulturae, 47, 173-176. doi:10.1016/0304-4238(91)90039-2

[10]   Fan, X. and Mattheis, J.P. (1998) Bagging “Fuji” apples during fruit development affects color development and storage quality. HortScience, 33, 1235-1238.

[11]   Singleton, V.L. and Rossi Jr., J. A. (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Ameican Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.

[12]   Apak, R., Guclu, K., Ozyurek, M. and Karademir, S.E. (2004) Novel total antioxidants capacity index for dietary polyphenol and vitamins C and E using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 7970-7981. doi:10.1021/jf048741x

[13]   Sharma, R.R., Pal, R.K., Singh, D., Singh, J., Dhiman, M.R. and Rana, M.R. (2012) Relationships between storage disorders and fruit calcium contents, lipoxygenase activity, and rates of ethylene evolution and respirationin “Royal Delicious” apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 87, 367-373.

[14]   Feys, M., Naesens, W., Tobback, P. and Maes, E. (1980) Lipoxygenase acitivty in apples in relation to storage and physiological disorders. Phytochemistry, 19, 1009-1011. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(80)83048-2

[15]   Axelrod, B., Cheesbrough, T.M. and Leakso, S. (1981) Lipoxygenase from soybeans. Methods Enzymology, 7, 443-451.

[16]   Panse V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1984) Statistical methods for agricultural workers. Third Edition, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.

[17]   Ritenour, M., Schrader, L., Kammereck, R., Donahue, R. and Edwards, G. (1997) Bag and liner color greatly affect apple temperature under full sunlight. HortScience, 32, 272-276.

[18]   Ju, Z. (1998) Fruit bagging, a useful method for studying anthocyanin synthesis and gene expression in apples. Scientia Horticulturae, 77, 155-164. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00161-7

[19]   Ju, Z.G., Yuan, Y., Liu, C. and Xin, S. (1995) Relationships among phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, simple phenol concentrations and anthocyanin accumulation in apple. Scientia Horticulturae, 61, 215-266. doi:10.1016/0304-4238(94)00739-3

[20]   Kim, Y.K., Kang, S.S., Cho, K.S. and Jeong. S.B. (2010) Effects of bagging with different pear paper bags on the color of fruit skin and qualities in “Manpungbae”. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 28, 36-40.

[21]   Bentley, W.J. and Viveros, M. (1992) Brown-bagging “Granny Smith” apples on trees stops codling moth damage. California Agriculture, 46, 30-32.

[22]   Lin, C.F. (2008) Effects of bagging on quality and nutrient content of “Jinfeng” pear. Journal Gansu Agricultural University, 2, 2-19.

[23]   Wang, Y.J., Yang, C.X. , Liu, C.Y., Xu, M., Li, S.H., Yang, L. and Wang, Y.N. (2010) Effects of bagging on volatiles and polyphenols in “Wanmi” peaches during endocarp hardening and final fruit rapid growth stages. Journal of Food Science, 75, 455-460. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01817.x

[24]   Wang, Y.T., Li, X., Li, Y., Li, L.L. and Zhang, S.L. (2011) Effects of bagging on browning spot incidence and content of different forms of calcium in “Huangguan” pear fruits. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 38, 1507-1514.

[25]   Hudina, M. and Stampar, F. (2011) Effect of fruit bagging on quality of “Conference” pear (Pyrus communis L.). European Journal of Horticultural Science, 76, 410-414.

[26]   Zhou, X.B. and Guo, X.W. (2005) Effects of bagging on the fruit sugar metabolism and invertase activities in “Red Globe” grape during fruit development. Journal of Fruit Science, 26, 30-33.

[27]   Kim, Y.H., Kim, H.H., Youn, C.K. Kweon, S.J., Jung, H.J. and Lee, C.H. (2008) Effects of bagging material on fruit coloration and quality of “Janghowon Hwangdo” peach. Acta Horticulturae, 772, 81-86.

[28]   Singh, B.P., Singh. R. A., Singh, G. and Killadi, B. (2007) Response of bagging on maturity, ripening and storage behaviour of winter guava. Acta Horticulturae, 735, 597-601.

[29]   Lin, J., Wang, J.H., Li, X.J. and Chang, Y.H. (2012) Effects of bagging twice and room temperature storage on quality of “Cuiguan” pear fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 934, 837-840.

[30]   Watanawan, A., Watanawan, C. and Jarunate, J. (2008) Bagging “Nam Dok Mai #4” mango during development affects color and fruit quality. Acta Horticulturae, 787, 325-328.

[31]   Debnath, S. and Mitra, S.K. (2008) Panicle bagging for maturity regulation, quality improvement and fruit borer management in litchi (Litchi chinensis). Acta Horticulturae, 773, 201-208.