Health  Vol.5 No.8 C , August 2013
Toxicity of abdominal fat

Abdominal fat or truncal obesity consists of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. It has been found that visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. The low-level inflammation linked with abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance and with increases in the release of inflammatory adipokines and cytokines. As a result of these changes, abdominal fat can cause a variety of health conditions. In this review, we focus on the adverse effects of abdominal fat on the body and how it can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke and cancer. Additionally, we discuss how abdominal fat can be reduced as a result from correction of hormonal deficiencies.

Cite this paper: Mathew, S. , Kosmas, C. , Siegel, R. and Vittorio, T. (2013) Toxicity of abdominal fat. Health, 5, 96-99. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3014.

[1]   Ribisl, P.M. (2004) Clinical applications: Toxic “waist” dump: Our abdominal visceral fat. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal, 8, 22-25. doi:10.1097/00135124-200407000-00007

[2]   Racette, S.B., Deusinger, S.S. and Deusinger, R.H. (2003) Obesity: Overview of prevalence, etiology, and treatment. Physical Therapy, 83, 276-288.

[3]   Fantuzzi, G. (2005) Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115, 911-919. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.02.023

[4]   Jenson, M.D. (2008) Role of body fat distribution and the metabolic complications of obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93, S57-S63. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-1585

[5]   Liu, J., Fox, C.S., Hickson, D.A., May, W.D., Hairston, K.G., Carr, J.J. and Taylor, H.A. (2010) Impact of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk factors: The jackson heart study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95, 5419-5426. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-1378

[6]   Direk, K., Cercelia, M., Astle, W., Chowienczyk, P., Spector, T.D., Falchi, M. and Andrew, T. (2013) The relationship between DXA-based and anthropometric measures of visceral fat and morbidity in women. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 13, 25. doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-25

[7]   Alam, I., Ng, T.P. and Larbi A. (2012) Does inflammation determine whether obesity is metabolically healthy or unhealthy? The aging perspective. Mediators of Inflammation, 2012, 456456. doi:10.1155/2012/456456

[8]   Smith, J.D., Borel, A.L., Nazare, J.A., Haffner, S.M., Balkau, B., Ross, R., Massien, C., Almèras, N. and Desprès, J.P. (2012) Visceral adipose tissue indicates the severity of cardiometabolic risk in patients with and without type 2 diabetes: Results from the inspire me IAA study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97, 1517-1525. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-2550

[9]   Echavarría-Pinto, M., Hernando, L. and Alfonso, F. (2013) From the epicardial adipose tissue to vulnerable coronary plaques. World Journal of Cardiology, 5, 68-74. doi:10.4330/wjc.v5.i4.68

[10]   Hsu, I.R., Kim, S.P., Kabir, M. and Bergman, R.N. (2007) Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and cancer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86, 867S-871S.

[11]   Ebbert, J.O. and Jensen, M.D. (2013) Fat depots, free fatty acids, and dyslipidemia. Nutrients, 5, 498-508. doi:10.3390/nu5020498

[12]   Summer, R., Walsh, K. and Medoff, B.D. (2011) Obesity and pulmonary arterial hypertension: Is adiponectin the molecular link between these conditions? Pulmonary Circulation, 1, 440-447. doi:10.4103/2045-8932.93542

[13]   Zhang, X., Shu, X.O., Gao, Y.T., Yang, G., Li, H. and Zheng, W. (2009) General and Abdominal adiposity and risk of stroke in Chinese women. Stroke, 40, 1098-1104. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.539692

[14]   Lear, S.A., Humphries, K.H., Kohli, S., Frohlich, J.J., Birmingham, C.L. and Mancini, G.B.J. (2007) Visceral adipose tissue, a potential risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis: Results of the multicultural community health assessment trial (M-CHAT). Stroke, 38, 2422-2429. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.484113

[15]   Hursting, S.D. and Dunlap, S.M. (2012) Obesity, metabolic dysregulation, and cancer: A growing concern and an inflammatory (and microenvironmental) issue. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1271, 82-87. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06737.x

[16]   Katcher, H.I., Legro, R.S., Kunselman, A.R., Gillies, P.J., Demers, L.M., Bagshaw, D.M. and Kris-Etherton, P.M. (2008) The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in mean and women with metabolic syndrome. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 79-90.

[17]   Shalet, S.M. (2010) Partial growth hormone deficiency in adults; should we be looking for it? Clinical Endocrinology, 73, 432-435.

[18]   Saad, F., Aversa, A., Isidori, A.M. and Gooren, L.J. (2012) Testosterone as potential effective therapy in treatment of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency: A review. Current Diabetes Reviews, 8, 131-143. doi:10.2174/157339912799424573

[19]   Hernandez-Morante, J.J., Milagro, F., Gabaldon, J.A., Martinez, J.A., Zamora, S. and Garaulet M. (2006) Effect of DHEA-sulfate on adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue from different fat depots in morbidly obese humans. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, 593-600. doi:10.1530/eje.1.02256