PSYCH  Vol.4 No.9 , September 2013
Encoding Organizational Source and Associative Source under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions
Author(s) Lei Zhu*

The present study aimed at providing a plausible answer for the controversy whether organizational source or associative source could be encoded in a more automatic manner through incidental learning. In the experiment, subjects were asked to learn organizational and associative sources under incidental or intentional learning conditions. It turned out that only associative source accuracy increased when subjects were instructed to intentionally learn that source, which implied that associative source might be encoded in a more effortful way, whereas processing of organizational source might be performed incidentally.

Cite this paper
Zhu, L. (2013). Encoding Organizational Source and Associative Source under Incidental and Intentional Learning Conditions. Psychology, 4, 677-681. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.49096.
[1]   Baddeley, A. D. (1982). Domains of recollection. Psychological Review, 89, 708-729. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.89.6.708

[2]   Chalfonte, B. L., & Johnson, M. K. (1996). Feature memory and binding in young and older adults. Memory & Cognition, 24, 403-416. doi:10.3758/BF03200930

[3]   Chalfonte, B. L., Verfaellie, M., Johnson, M. K., & Reiss, L. (1996). Spatial location memory in amnesia: binding item and location information under incidental and intentional encoding conditions. Memory, 4, 591-614. doi:10.1080/741940998

[4]   Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.104.3.268

[5]   Ferguson, S. A., Hashtroudi, S., & Johnson, M. K. (1992). Age differences in using source-relevant cues. Psychology and Aging, 7, 443-452. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.7.3.443

[6]   Geiselman, R. E., & Bjork, R. A. (1980). Primary versus secondary rehearsal in imagined voices: Differential effects on recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 188-205. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(80)90008-0

[7]   Hashtroudi, S., Johnson, M. K., Vnek, N., & Ferguson, S. A. (1994). Aging and the effects of affective and factual focus on source monitoring and recall. Psychology and Aging, 9, 160-170. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.9.1.160

[8]   Kuo, T. Y., & Van Petten, C. (2006). Prefrontal engagement during source memory retrieval depends on the prior encoding task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1133-1146. doi:10.1162/jocn.2006.18.7.1133

[9]   Marsh, R. L., Hicks, J. L., & Cook, G. I. (2004). Focused attention on one contextual attribute does not reduce source memory for a different attribute. Memory, 2004, 12, 183-192. doi:10.1080/09658210344000008

[10]   Mayr, U. (1996). Spatial attention and implicit sequence learning: Evidence for independent learning of spatial and non spatial sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 22, 350-364. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.22.2.350

[11]   Moscovitch, M. (1992). Memory and working-with-memory: A component process model based on modules and central systems. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 257-267. doi:10.1162/jocn.1992.4.3.257

[12]   Rossion, B., & Pourtois, G. (2004). Revisiting Snodgrass and Vanderwart’s object set: The role of surface detail in basic-level object recognition. Perception, 33, 217-236. doi:10.1068/p5117

[13]   Schacter, D. L. (1987). Memory, amnesia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. Psychobiology, 15, 21-36.

[14]   Schacter, D. L., Kaszniak, A. W., Kihlstrom, J. F., & Valdiserri, M. (1991). The relation between source memory and aging. Psychology and Aging, 6, 559-568. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.6.4.559

[15]   Schulman, A. I. (1974). Memory for words recently classified. Memory & Cognition, 2, 47-52. doi:10.3758/BF03197491

[16]   Spencer, W. D., & Raz, N. (1995). Differential effects of aging on memory for content and context: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 10, 527-539. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.10.4.527

[17]   Staresina, B. P., & Davachi, L. (2008). Selective and shared contributions of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex to episodic item and associative encoding. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1478-1489. doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.20104

[18]   Staresina, B. P., Gray, J. C., & Davachi, L. (2009). Event congruency enhances episodic memory encoding through semantic elaboration and relational binding. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 1198-1207. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn165

[19]   Troyer, A. K. & Craik, F. I. (2000). The effect of divided attention on memory for items and their context. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 161-171. doi:10.1037/h0087338

[20]   Troyer, A. K., Craik, F. I. M., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. (1999). Source memory and divided attention: Reciprocal costs to primary and secondary tasks. Neuropsychology, 13, 467-474. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.13.4.467

[21]   Uncapher, M. R., & Rugg, M. R. (2009) Selecting for Memory? The influence of selective attention on the mnemonic binding of contextual information. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 8270-8279. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1043-09.2009

[22]   Uncapher, M. R., Otten, L. J., & Rugg, M. D. (2006). Episodic encoding is more than the sum of its parts: An fMRI investigation of multifeatural contextual encoding. Neuron, 52, 547-556. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.08.011

[23]   Wegesin, D. J., Jacobs, D. M., Zubin, N. R., Ventura1, P. R., & Stern, Y. (2000). Source memory and encoding strategy in normal aging. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 22, 455-464. doi:10.1076/1380-3395(200008)22:4;1-0;FT455

[24]   Zhu, L., Guo, X., Zheng, L., Li, J., Pei, M., Dienes, Z., & Yang, Z. (2010). Graded contribution of hippocampus to multifeature binding across temporal delay. Neuroreport, 21, 902-906. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e32833dddb4