IJG  Vol.4 No.6 B , August 2013
Urban Geography and the Production of Socio-Environmental Inequalities
Author(s) Marc Parés*
ABSTRACT

In this article we use the Urban Political Ecology approach to show that by analysing governance networks we can better understand the production of certain socio-environmental transformations that negatively affect some social groups while benefiting others. Drawing upon two case studies in the UK, the article explores the dialectical relationships between different modes of urban governance on one hand and the socio-environmental transformations fulfilled in each case study on the other hand. The article concludes that although urban regeneration policies are always constrained by the neoliberal established framework of power relations, policy outputs and outcomes could be very different from one place to another, shaping uneven socio-environmental constructions. Finally, we make some recommendations in order to stimulate the production of more sustainable communities in the future.


Cite this paper
M. Parés, "Urban Geography and the Production of Socio-Environmental Inequalities," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2013, pp. 44-52. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46A2006.
References
[1]   D. Harvey, “Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference,” Blackwell, Oxford, 1996.

[2]   R. Keil, “Urban Political Ecology,” Urban Geography, Vol. 26, No. 7, 2006, pp. 640-651. doi:10.2747/0272-3638.26.7.640

[3]   P. Roberts and H. Sykes, “Urban Regeneration,” Sage, London, 2006.

[4]   P. Jones and J. Evans, “Urban Regeneration in the UK,” Sage, London, 2008.

[5]   R. Imrie and M. Raco, “Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy,” The Policy Press, Bristol, 2003. doi:10.1332/policypress/9781861343802.001.0001

[6]   V. Guarneros-Meza and M. Geddes, “Local Governance and Participation under Neoliberalism: Comparative Perspectives,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2010, pp. 115-129. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.00952.x

[7]   E. Sorensen and J. Torfing, “The Democratic Anchorage of Governance Networks,” Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2005, pp. 195-218. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9477.2005.00129.x

[8]   E. Swyngedouw, “Civil Society, Governmentaly and the Contradictions of Governance-beyond-the-State: The Janus-Face of Social Innovation,” In: J. Hillier, F. Moulaert and S. Vicari, Eds., Social Innovation and Territorial Development, Ashgate, London, 2009, pp. 63-80.

[9]   J. Agyeman, R. Bullard and B. Evans, “Exploring the Nexus: Bringing Together Sustainability, Environmental Justice and Equity,” Space and Polity, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2002, pp. 77-90. doi:10.1080/13562570220137907

[10]   R. Krueger and D. Gibbs, “The Sustainable Development Paradox: Urban Political Economy in the United States and Europe,” The Guilford Press, New York, 2007.

[11]   A. Di Gaetano and E. Strom, “Comparative Urban Governance. An Integrated Approach,” Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2003, pp. 356-395. doi:10.1177/1078087402238806

[12]   J. Pierre, “Models of Urban Governance. The Institutional Dimension of Urban Politics,” Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1999, pp. 372-396. doi:10.1177/10780879922183988

[13]   K. Provan and P. Kenis, “Modes of Network Governance: Structure, Management, and Effectiveness,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2007, pp. 229-252. doi:10.1093/jopart/mum015

[14]   G. Blakeley, “Governing Ourselves: Citizen Participation and Governance in Barcelona and Manchester,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2010, pp. 130-145. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.00953.x

[15]   A. Cento and B. Jones, “Governance and Social Capital in Urban Regeneration: A Comparison between Bristol and Naples,” Urban Studies, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2006, pp. 767-786. doi:10.1080/00420980600597558

[16]   J. Pierre, “Comparative Urban Governance. Uncovering Complex Causalities,” Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2005, pp. 446-462. doi:10.1177/1078087404273442

[17]   C. Poppelaars, “Resource Exchange in Urban Governance. On the Means That Matter,” Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2007, pp. 3-27. doi:10.1177/1078087407302766

[18]   M. Parés, J. Bonet and M. Martí, “Does Participation Really Matter in Urban Regeneration Policies? Exploring Governance Networks in Catalonia (Spain),” Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2012, pp. 238-271. doi:10.1177/1078087411423352

[19]   N. Heynen, M. Kaika and E. Swyngedouw, “In the Nature of Cities. Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism,” Routledge, New York, 2006.

[20]   E. Swyngedouw, “Social Power and the Urbanization of Water: Flows of Power,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004.

[21]   R. K. Yin, “Case Study Research. Design and Methods,” Sage, London, 2003.

[22]   European Institute for Urban Affairs, “Hulme City Challenge. Did It Work?” Manchester City Council, Manchester, 1998.

[23]   S. Henderson, S. Bowlby and M. Raco, “Refashioning Local Government and Inner-City Regeneration: The Salford Experience,” Urban Studies, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1441-1463. doi:10.1080/00420980701373495

[24]   J. Kooiman, “Modern Governance: New Government-Society Interactions,” Sage, London, 1993.

[25]   B. Jessop, “Liberalism, Neoliberalism and Urban Governance: A State-Theoretical Perspective,” Antipode, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002, pp. 452-472. doi:10.1111/1467-8330.00250

[26]   E. Swyngedouw, “Governance Innovation and the Citizen: The Janus Face of Governance-beyond-the-State,” Urban Studies, Vol. 42, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1992-2006. doi:10.1080/00420980500279869

[27]   N. Brenner, J. Peck and N. Theodore, “Variegated Neoliberalization: Geographies, Modalities, Pathways,” Global Networks, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010, pp. 182-222. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2009.00277.x

[28]   E. Swyngedouw, “The Post-Political City,” In Bavo, Eds., Urban Politics Now. Re-Imaging Democracy in the Neoliberal City, NAI Publishers, Rotterdam, 2007, pp. 58-77.

[29]   M. Raco, “Sustainable Development, Rolled-Out NeoLiberalism and Sustainable Communities,” Antipode, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2005, pp. 324-346. doi:10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00495.x

[30]   F. Moualert, F. Martinelli, S. González and E. Swyngedouw, “Social Innovation and Governance in European Cities: Urban Development between Path Dependency and Radical Innovation,” European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2007, pp. 195-209. doi:10.1177/0969776407077737

 
 
Top