AJPS  Vol.4 No.9 , September 2013
Auxin Producing Pseudomonas Strains: Biological Candidates to Modulate the Growth of Triticum aestivum Beneficially
Abstract: The screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is a crucial step for their utilization as beneficial input in improving the crop productivity. This study was carried out to screen and evaluate the auxin producing rhizospheric isolated Pseudomonas strains for their potential to improve growth of Triticum aestivum (wheat) plant under laboratory and natural conditions. Three strains PNS-4, PNS-6 and PNS-15 were evaluated for auxin production by Salkowski’s method and further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The PNS-4, PNS-6 and PNS-15 strains were identified by I6S rRNA gene sequencing that showed maximum resemblance with Pseudomonas mendocina (99%), Pseudomonas alcaliphila (99%) and Pseudomonas sp. (99%) respectively. Selected strains were found to produce auxin with and without the amendment of exogenously applied L-tryptophan, a major precursor for auxin biosynthesis and an important constituent of plant root exudates. Efficacy of these strains on wheat plant growth was checked under laboratory and field conditions. All Pseudomonas species were found to improve the % seed germination and growth parameters (shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight) of the wheat seedlings significantly (P = 0.05) as compared to the un-inoculated seedlings under laboratory condition. The biochemical parameters (total soluble protein content and endogenous auxin content) of the bacterial inoculated wheat seedling were also increased significantly than that of uninoculated ones. Under natural condition, seed bacterization also showed the significant effect (P = 0.05) on yield parameters (shoot length, number of tillers, spike length and weight of seeds in grams) of the wheat plants when compared with non-inoculated plants. Our results reported the three most promising Pseudomonas candidates and revealed the fact that experiments under laboratory and natural conditions may be helpful in selecting the best candidates as bio fertilizers for future agricultural practices.
Cite this paper: A. Iqbal and S. Hasnain, "Auxin Producing Pseudomonas Strains: Biological Candidates to Modulate the Growth of Triticum aestivum Beneficially," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 1693-1700. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49206.

[1]   F. Ahmad, I. Ahmad and M. S. Khan, “Screening of FreeLiving Rhizospheric Bacteria for Their Multiple Plant Growth Promoting Activities,” Microbiological Research, Vol. 163, No. 2, 2008, pp. 173-181. doi:10.1016/j.micres.2006.04.001

[2]   S. Taghavi, C. Garafola and S. Monchy, “Genome Survey and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Exhibiting a Beneficial Effect on Growth and Development of Poplar Trees,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2009, pp. 748-757. doi:10.1016/j.micres.2006.04.001

[3]   S. Spaepen, J. Vanderleyden and R. Remans, “Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Microbial and Microorganism-Plant Signaling,” FEMS Microbiological Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2007, pp. 425-448. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00072.x

[4]   C. Dimkpa, A. Svatos, D. Merten, G. Buchel and E. Kothe, “Hydroxamate Siderophores Produced by Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 Bind Nickel and Promote Growth in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under Nickel Stress,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2008, pp. 163-172. doi:10.1139/W07-130

[5]   S. M. Nadeem, Z. A. Zahir, M. Naveed, M. Arshad and S. M. Shahzad, “Variation in Growth and Ion Uptake of Maize Due to Inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria under Salt Stress,” Soil and Environment, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2006, pp. 78-84.

[6]   S. C. Kang, C. G. Ha, T. G. Lee and D. K. Maheshwari, “Solubilization of Insoluble Inorganic Phosphate by a Soil Inhabiting Fungus Fomitopsis sp. PS102,” Current Science, Vol. 82, No. 4, 2002, pp. 439-442.

[7]   N. Pradhan and L. B. Sukla, “Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphate by Fungi Isolated from Agriculture Soil,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 5, No. 10, 2005, pp. 850-854.

[8]   J. D. Correa, M. L. Barrios and R. P. Galdona, “Screening for Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria in Chamaecytisus proliferus (tagasaste), a Forage Tree-Shrub Legume Endemic to the Canary Islands,” Plant Soil, Vol. 266, 2004, pp. 75-84.

[9]   F. Ahmad, I. Ahmad and M. S. Khan, “Indole Acetic Acid Production by the Indigenous Isolates of Azotobacter and Fluorescent Pseudomonas in the Presence and Absence of Tryptophan,” Turkish Journal of Biology, Vol. 29, 2005, pp. 29-34.

[10]   J. K. Vessey, “Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biofertilizers,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 255, No. 2, 2003, pp. 571-586. doi:10.1023/A:1026037216893

[11]   D. Egamberdieva, “Plant Growth Promoting Properties of Rhizobacteria Isolated from Wheat and Pea Grown in Loamy Sand Soil,” Turkish Journal of Biology Vol. 32, No. 1, 2008, pp. 9-15.

[12]   D. S. Thuler, E. I. S. Floh, W. Handro and H. R. Barbosa, “Plant Growth Regulators and Amino Acids Released by Azospirillum sp. in Chemically Defined Media,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2003, pp. 174-178. doi:10.1046/j.1472-765X.2003.01373.x

[13]   D. Perrig, M. L. Boiero, O. A. Masciarelli, C. Penna, O. A. Ruiz, F. D. Cassan and M. V. Luna, “Plant Growth Promoting Compounds Produced by Two Agronomically Important Strains of Azospirillum brasilense and Implications for Inoculant Formulation,” Applied Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 75, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1143-1150.

[14]   H. Bertrand, R. Nalin, R. Bally and J. C. Cleyet-Marel, “Isolation and Identification of the Most Efficient Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Canola (Brassica napus),” Biology Fertility Soils, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2001, pp. 152-156. doi:10.1007/s003740000305

[15]   J. K. Vessey and T. J. Buss, “Bacillus cereus UW85 Inoculation Effects on Growth, Nodulation and N Accumulation in Grain Legumes: Controlled Environment Studies,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 82, 2002, pp. 283-290.

[16]   S. Akhtar and B. Ali, “Evaluation of Rhizobacteria as Non-Rhizobial Inoculants for Mung Beans,” Australian Journal of Crop Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 13, 2011, pp. 1723-1729.

[17]   J. M. Barea and E. Navarro, “Montoya Production of Plant Growth Regulators by Rhizosphere Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1976, pp. 129-134. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1976.tb04161.x

[18]   F. Persello-Cartieaux, L. Nussaume and C. Rosalie, “Tales from the Underground: Molecular Plant-Rhizobacteria Interactions,” Plant and Cell Environment, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2003, pp. 189-199. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2003.00956.x

[19]   A. Iqbal and S. Hasnain, “Aeromonas punctata PNS-1: A Promising Candidate to Change the Root Morphogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana in MS and Sand System,” Acta Physiologia, 2012. doi:10.1007/s11738-012-1106-8

[20]   M. Arshad and W. T. Frankenberger, “Soil Microbial Ecology,” In: F. B. Metting, Ed., Microbial Production of Plant Growth Regulators, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1992.

[21]   L. M. Nelson, “Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): Prospects for New Inoculants,” Crop Management, 2004. doi:10.1094/CM-2004-0301-05-RV

[22]   N. Khakipour, K. Khavazi, H. Mojallali, E. Pazira and H. Asadirahmani, “Production of Auxin Hormone by Fluorescent Pseudomonads,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2008, pp. 687-692.

[23]   B. Ali, A. N. Sabri, K. Ljung and S. Hasnain, “Quantification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid from Plant Associated Bacillus spp. and Their Phytostimulatory Effect on Vigna radiata (L.),” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2009, pp. 519-526. doi:10.1007/s11274-008-9918-9

[24]   X. L. Cui, P. H. Mao, M. Zeng, W. J. Li, L. P. Zhang, L. H. Xu and C. L. Jiang, “Streptomonospora salina gen. nov., sp. nov., a New Member of the Family Nocardiopsaceae,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2001, pp. 357-363.

[25]   E. Glickman and Y. Dessaux, “A Critical Examination of the Specificity of the Salkowski’s Reagent for Indolic Compounds Produced by Phytopathogenic Bacteria,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1995, pp. 793-796.

[26]   S. Afrasayab and S. Hasnain, “Synergistic Growth Stimulatory Effects of Mixed Culture Bacterial Inoculations on the Early Growth of Triticum aestivum Var Inqalab-91 under NaCl Stress,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 1016-1023. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2000.1016.1023

[27]   A. Khalid, M. Arshad and Z. A. Zahir, “Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Growth and Yield of Wheat,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2004, pp. 473-480. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02161.x

[28]   H. N. Asghar, Z. A. Zahir and M. Arshad, “Screening Rhizobacteria for Improving the Growth, Yield, and Oil Content of Canola (Brassica napus L),” Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2004, pp. 187-194. doi:10.1071/AR03112

[29]   F. Kamilova, L. V. Kravchenko, A. I. Shaposhnikov, T. Azarova, N. Makarova and B. Lugtenberg, “Organic Acids, Sugars, and L-Tryptophan in Exudates of Vegetables Growing on Stonewool and Their Effects on Activities of Rhizosphere Bacteria,” Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction, Vol. 19, 2006, pp. 250-256. doi:10.1094/MPMI-19-0250

[30]   M. Ahmed, L. J. Stal and S. Hasnain, “Production of Phytohormone Auxin by Rhizospheric Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. MMG-1,” Planta Medica, Vol. 77. No. 12. 2011. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1282266

[31]   R. Cakmakci, F. Donmez, A. Aydin and F. Sahin, “Growth Promotion of Plants by Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria under Greenhouse and Two Different Field Soil Conditions,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1482-1487. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.09.019

[32]   B. Shaharoona. G. M. Jamro, Z. A. Zahir, M. Arshad and K. S. Memon, “Effectiveness of Various Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderia caryophylli Containing ACC Deaminase for Proving Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 17, 2007, pp. 1300-1307.

[33]   B. Hameeda, G. Harini, O. P. Rupela, S. P. Wani and G. Reddy, “Growth Promotion of Maize by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Composts and Macrofauna,” Microbiological Research, Vol. 163, No. 2, 2008, pp. 234-242. doi:10.1016/j.micres.2006.05.009

[34]   B. S. Saharan and V. Nehra, “Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: A Critical Review,” Life Sciences and Medicine Research, Vol. 21, 2011, pp. 1-30.

[35]   A. Hussain and A. Hasnain, “Cytokinin Production by Some Bacteria: Its Impact on Cell Division in Cucumber Cotyledons,” African Journal of Microbiological Research, Vol. 3, No. 11, 2009, pp. 704-712

[36]   H. Abbaspoor, R. Zabihi, S. Movafegh and M. H. Akbari Asl, “The Efficiency of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Yield and Yield Components of Two Varieties of Wheat in Salinity Condition,” Am-Eurasian Journal of sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 3, 2009, pp. 824-828.