Background: The thermal environment surrounding neonates in closed incubators can be regulated via two different modes: skin servocontrol mode (SSC) and air temperature control mode (ATC). These produce different patterns of incubator air and infant body temperatures. Objective: To assess the effects of incubator control mode on clinical outcomes of low-birth-weight-infants during the first days of life and at hospital discharge. Methods: 52 low-birth-weight neonates were nursed over ten days in closed incubators functioning either with SSC mode (n = 29), or with ATC mode (n = 23). Results: The anthropomorphic characteristics of the two groups of neonates were homogenous (gestational age = 29.4 ± 1.4 vs. 29.9 ± 1.2 weeks and birthweight = 1214 ± 347 vs. 1263 ±292 gin the SSC-group and the ATC-group, respectively) and the caregiving (energy and fluid intakes, ventilator assistance and drug administration) did not differ statistically. Daily means of incubator air temperature were similar in the SSC and the ATC-group, however, the SSC mode resulted in more variable incubator air temperature but more stable skin abdominal temperature whereas the reverse was found when using the ATC mode. Those differences had no impact on the body weight of the neonates or their clinical outcomes at hospital discharge which were not statistically different. Conclusion: The clinical outcomes do not differ depending on the incubator control mode after the first ten days of life and at hospital discharge.
 Chessex, P., Blovet, S. and Vaucher J. (1988) Environmental control in very low birth weight infants (less than 1000 grams) cared for in double walled incubators. Journal of Pediatrics, 113, 373-380.
 Richardson, D.K., Shah, B.L., Frantz, I.D., Bednarek, F., Rubin, L.P. and McCormick, M.C. (1999) Perinatal risk and severity of illness in newborns at 6 neonatal intensive care units. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 89, 511-516.
 Décima, P., Dégrugilliers, L., Delanaud, S., Stéphan-Blanchard, E., Vanhée, J.L. and Libert, J.P. (2012) Design of a software for assessing thermoneutrality in closed incubators for preterm neonates (PRETHERM project). IRBM, 33, 48-54.
 Chessex, P., Reichman, B.L., Verellen, G.J., Putet, G., Smith, J.M., Heim, T. and Swyer, P.R. (1981) Influence of postnatal age, energy intake, and weight gain on energy metabolism in the very low-birth-weight infant. Journal of Pediatrics, 99, 761-766.
 Graven, S.N., Bowen, F.W., Brooten, D., Eaton, A., Graven, M.N., Hack, M., Hall, L.A., Hansen, N., Hurt, H., Kavalhuna, R., et al. (1992) The high-risk infant environment. Part 1. The role of the neonatal intensive care unit in the outcome of highrisk infants. Journal of Perinatology, 12, 164-172.
 Deguines, C., Décima, P., Pelletier, A., Dégrugilliers, L., Ghyselen, L. and Tourneux, P. (2012) Variations in incubator temperature and humidity management: A survey of current practice. Acta Paediatrica, 101, 230-235.
 Deguines, C., Dégrugilliers, L., Ghyselen, L., Chardon, K., Bach, V. and Tourneux, P. (2013) Impact of nursing care on temperature environment in preterm newborns nursed in closed convective incubators. Acta Paediatrica, 102, e96-e101.