ABSTRACT On all terms of pregnancy, insolvency of decidual reaction of endometrial cells is one of the reasons of miscarriages and fetal growth delay. The insufficient decidualization of endometrum leads to infertility in such pathologies, as Asherman’s syndrome and an endometrium atrophy. However, there are data on successful application of autologous bone marrow MSCs for Asherman’s syndrome treatment. The aim of this work was to assay the effect of endometrial mesenchymal stem cell (eMSC) transplantation for decidualization process in pseudopregnant rat. Our study showed that injection of human eMSC suspension into the uterine lumen of pseudopregnant rats facilitated more intensive development of decidua in comparison with phosphate buffed saline (PBS) injection in the control uterine horn. Histological analysis of decidua sections did not reveal any alterations in cell differentiation or tissue structure. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that eMSC transplantation assists the development of all decidual tissue elements. It opens the possibility that eMSCs may be applied for cell therapy of infertility associated with decidualzation insufficiency.
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