OJPed  Vol.3 No.3 , September 2013
Hepatitis C virus antibodies among transfused children with sickle cell anaemia at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital
ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) resulting to a chronic Hepatitis. Chronic HCV infection constitutes a serious health challenge in places where prevalence is substantial. In Nigeria, there is a high risk because donor blood is not routinely screened for HCV. Patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are considered a subset of the population at higher risk of acquiring the virus, due to their frequent needs for transfusion of blood and its products. However, the magnitude of HCV infection has not been adequately measured in our general population and specific data on HCV in SCA patients are scanty, hence a prospective case controlled study to determine the prevalence of HCV antibodies in transfused SCA patients attending the sickle cell anaemia clinic in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin was taken. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus antibodies among transfused children with SCA in Ilorin. Subjects and Method: Eighty two transfused SCA children aged 6 months to 14 years were recruited consecutively from February 2008 to January 2009 while eighty four non transfused SCA children of the same age range recruited over the same period served as controls. Hepatitis C virus antibody screening was done using a second generation ELISA method. Results: The overall prevalence of HCV antibody was 3.0%, while it was 3.7% and 2.4% in the transfused and non transfused SCA patients respectively (χ2 = 0.23, p = 0.68). The patients were also comparable across the social class when subcategorized into high and low social class (χ2 = 0.37, p = 1.00 (subjects), χ2 = 0.42, p = 1.00 (controls). Conclusion: The prevalence of Hepatitis C virus anti-

bodies in transfused SCA patients is low. The difference in prevalence between transfused and nontransfused SCA patient was not statistically significant. This was cautiously interpreted due to the hospital based premise of the work. Therefore, Hepatitis C virus antibody acquisition might be from sources other than transfusion of unscreened blood.


Cite this paper
Onuchukwu, C. , Ojuawo, A. and Ernest, S. (2013) Hepatitis C virus antibodies among transfused children with sickle cell anaemia at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 3, 195-200. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33034.
References
[1]   Mutimer, D.J., Olomu, A., Skidmore, S., et al. (1994) Viral hepatitis in Nigeria sickle cell disease and comercial blood donors. QJM, 87, 407-411.

[2]   Lesi, O.A. and Kehinde, M.O. (2003) Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with sickle cell anaemia at Lagos University Hospital. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 10, 79-83.

[3]   Hoognagle, J.H. and Hepatitis, C. (1997) The clinical spectrum of disease. Hepatology, 26, 5S-20S.

[4]   Esteban, J.I., Lopez-Televera, J.C., Genesca, J., et al. (1999) High rate of infectivity and liver disease in blood donors with antibodies to hepatitis C virus. Annals of Internal Medicine, 15, 443-449.

[5]   WHO (1997) Hepatitis C WHO fact sheet No 164. http://www.who.int/inffs/en/fact 164.html

[6]   Coursaget, P., Bourdil, C., Kastally, R., et al. (1990) Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in Africa; anti HCV antibodies in the general population and in patients suffering from cirrhosis or primary liver cancer. Research in Virology, 141, 449-454. doi:10.1016/0923-2516(90)90045-K

[7]   Choo, Q.L., Weiner, A.J., Overby, L.R., et al. (1990) Hepatitis C virus: The major causative agent of viral non-A, non-B hepatitis. British Medical Bulletin, 46, 423-441.

[8]   Finleyson, M.D., Hayes, P.C. and Simpson, K.J. (1999) Diseases of the liver and biliary system. In: Christopher, H., Ed., Davidson’s Principle and Practice of Medicine, Churchill Livingstone (Publishers) Ltd, Edinburgh, 683-736.

[9]   Choo, Q.L., Kuo, G., Weiner, A.J., et al. (1989) Isolation of A cDNA clone derived from a blood borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science, 244, 359-362. doi:10.1126/science.2523562

[10]   Kuo, G., Choo, Q.L., Alter, H.J., et al. (1989) An essay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science, 244, 362-364. doi:10.1126/science.2496467

[11]   Donahue, J.G., Munoz, A., Ness, P.M., et al. (1992) The declining risk of post-transfusion hepatitis C virus infection. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 369-373. doi:10.1056/NEJM1 99208063270601

[12]   Schreiber, G.B., Busch, M.P., Kleinman, S.H., et al. (1996) The risk of transfusion—transmitted viral infections. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 1685-1690. doi:10.1056/NEJM1 99606273342601

[13]   Bhattacharya, D.K., Bhattacharjee, S., De, M. and Lahiri, P. (1991) Prevalence of hepatitis C in transfusion dependent thalassaemics and haemophiliacs. Indian Journal of Medical Research (B), 94, 430-432.

[14]   Adewuyi, J.O. (1996) Prevalence of antibodies to hepatictis C virus among normal blood donors and multi-transfused sickle-cell anaemia patients in Nigeria. Tropical Doctor, 26, 29-30.

[15]   Akinyanju, O.A. (1989) A profile of sickle cell disease in Nigeria. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 565, 126-136. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb24159.x

[16]   Hasan, M.F., Marsh, F., Posner, G., et al. (1996) Chronic hepatitis C in patients with sickle cell disease. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 91, 1204-1206.

[17]   De Vault, K.R., Friedman, L.S., Westerberg, S., et al. (1994) Hepatitis C in sickle cell anaemia. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 18, 206-209. doi:10.1097/00004836-199404000-00006

[18]   Torres, M.C.M.R., Pereira, L.M.M.B., Ximenes, R.A.A., et al. (2003) Hepatitis C virus infection in a Brazilian population with sickle-cell anaemia. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36, 323-329. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2003000300006

[19]   Ejele, O.A., Nwauche, C.A. and Erhabor, O. (2006) Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 13, 103-106.

[20]   Agbede, O.O., Iseniyi, J.O., Ojuawo, A., et al. (2006) Risk factors and seroprevalence of hepatitis C antibody in mothers and their pre-school age children in Ilorin. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 7, 153-157.

[21]   Thomas, D.C., Zerilman, J.M. and Alter, H.J. (1995) Sexual transmission of hepatitis C among patients attending Baltimore sexually transmitted diseases clinic: An analysis of 309 sexual partnerships. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 171, 768-775.

[22]   Jose, L., Sanchez, M.H. and Sjorgren, J.D. (2000) Hepatitis C in Peru: Risk factors for infection, potential iatrogenic transmission and genotype distribution. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 63, 242-248.

 
 
Top