Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves

ABSTRACT

The study displays that TEM waves (e.g. radio waves, light) consist of low frequency plane TEM waves where the radio frequency energy or light energy is superpositioned on these low frequency TEM waves. The superpositioned energy can be discrete and where its frequency*ν* determines its energy *hv* and where this superpositioned energy *hv* is the photon. The study shows that photons and TEM waves are described by the laws of electromagnetism. Hence, there is a duality between the photon and the TEM wave and also a duality between electromagnetism and quantum theory in this case. The low frequency plane TEM waves originate from a singularity in universe and have been described earlier. The study describes how energy from a generator, from light bulbs and radio antennas is superpositioned on low frequency TEM waves, resulting in medium frequency TEM waves, radio waves and light. The study displays that light from the sun consists of light energy superpositioned on low frequency TEM waves. The study describes methods enabling measurement of the low frequency plane TEM waves and the superpositioned energy.

The study displays that TEM waves (e.g. radio waves, light) consist of low frequency plane TEM waves where the radio frequency energy or light energy is superpositioned on these low frequency TEM waves. The superpositioned energy can be discrete and where its frequency

Cite this paper

H. Giertz, "Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves,"*Open Journal of Microphysics*, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 71-80. doi: 10.4236/ojm.2013.33013.

H. Giertz, "Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves,"

References

[1] M. Alonso and E. J. Finn, “Fundamental University Physics Volume III: Quantum and Statistical Physics,” Addison-Wesley, Boston, 1968.

[2] V. V. Kobychev and S. B. Popov, “Constraints on the Photon Charge from Observations of Extragalactic Sources,” Astronomy Letters, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2005, pp. 147-151. doi:10.1134/1.1883345

[3] R. Lakes, “Experimental Limits on the Photon Mass and Cosmic Magnetic Vector Potential,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 80, No. 9, 1998, pp. 1826-1829. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.1826

[4] E. Adelberger, G. Dvali and A. Gruzinov, “Photon-Mass Bound Destroyed by Vortices,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2007, Article ID: 010402. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.010402

[5] C. Burgess and G. Moore, “The Standard Model: A Primer,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.

[6] I. Bialynicki-Birula, “On the Wave Function of the Photon,” Acta Physica Polonica A, Vol. 86, No. 1-2, 1994, pp. 97-116.

[7] J. E. Sipe, “Photon Wave Functions,” Physical Review A, Vol. 52, No. 3, 1995, pp. 1875-1883. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.52.1875

[8] M. Arndt, O. Nairz, J. Voss-Andreae, C. Keller, G. van der Zouw and A. Zeilinger, “Wave-Particle Duality of C60,” Nature, Vol. 401, No. 6754, 1999, pp. 680-682. doi:10.1038/44348

[9] S. S. Afshar, et al., “Paradox in Wave Particle Duality,” Foundations of Physics, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2007, pp. 295-305. doi:10.1007/s10701-006-9102-8

[10] D. B. Melrose and R. C. McPhedran, “Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511600036

[11] B. I. Bleaney and B. Bleaney, “Electricity and Magnetism,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1965, pp. 256-261.

[12] L. H. Ryder, “Quantum Field Theory,” 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511813900

[13] H. W. Giertz, “Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Air,” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 72, No. 9-10, 2010, pp. 767-773. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.03.022

[14] H. W. Giertz “Gravity Caused by TEM Waves Operating on Dipoles in Atoms,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 3, No. 2A, 2013, pp. 39-50.

[15] H. Wynberg, E. W. Meijer, J. C. Hummelen, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, P. H. Schippers and A. D. Carlson, “Circular Polarization Observed in Bioluminescence,” Nature, Vol. 286, No. 5773, 1980, pp. 641-642. doi:10.1038/286641a0

[16] J. C. Kemp and R. D. Wolstencroft, “Interstellar Circular Polarization: Data for Six Stars and the Wavelength Dependence,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 176, 1972, pp. L115-L118.

[1] M. Alonso and E. J. Finn, “Fundamental University Physics Volume III: Quantum and Statistical Physics,” Addison-Wesley, Boston, 1968.

[2] V. V. Kobychev and S. B. Popov, “Constraints on the Photon Charge from Observations of Extragalactic Sources,” Astronomy Letters, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2005, pp. 147-151. doi:10.1134/1.1883345

[3] R. Lakes, “Experimental Limits on the Photon Mass and Cosmic Magnetic Vector Potential,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 80, No. 9, 1998, pp. 1826-1829. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.1826

[4] E. Adelberger, G. Dvali and A. Gruzinov, “Photon-Mass Bound Destroyed by Vortices,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2007, Article ID: 010402. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.010402

[5] C. Burgess and G. Moore, “The Standard Model: A Primer,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.

[6] I. Bialynicki-Birula, “On the Wave Function of the Photon,” Acta Physica Polonica A, Vol. 86, No. 1-2, 1994, pp. 97-116.

[7] J. E. Sipe, “Photon Wave Functions,” Physical Review A, Vol. 52, No. 3, 1995, pp. 1875-1883. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.52.1875

[8] M. Arndt, O. Nairz, J. Voss-Andreae, C. Keller, G. van der Zouw and A. Zeilinger, “Wave-Particle Duality of C60,” Nature, Vol. 401, No. 6754, 1999, pp. 680-682. doi:10.1038/44348

[9] S. S. Afshar, et al., “Paradox in Wave Particle Duality,” Foundations of Physics, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2007, pp. 295-305. doi:10.1007/s10701-006-9102-8

[10] D. B. Melrose and R. C. McPhedran, “Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511600036

[11] B. I. Bleaney and B. Bleaney, “Electricity and Magnetism,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1965, pp. 256-261.

[12] L. H. Ryder, “Quantum Field Theory,” 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511813900

[13] H. W. Giertz, “Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Air,” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 72, No. 9-10, 2010, pp. 767-773. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.03.022

[14] H. W. Giertz “Gravity Caused by TEM Waves Operating on Dipoles in Atoms,” International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 3, No. 2A, 2013, pp. 39-50.

[15] H. Wynberg, E. W. Meijer, J. C. Hummelen, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, P. H. Schippers and A. D. Carlson, “Circular Polarization Observed in Bioluminescence,” Nature, Vol. 286, No. 5773, 1980, pp. 641-642. doi:10.1038/286641a0

[16] J. C. Kemp and R. D. Wolstencroft, “Interstellar Circular Polarization: Data for Six Stars and the Wavelength Dependence,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 176, 1972, pp. L115-L118.