Health  Vol.2 No.12 , December 2010
Emotional categorization: Individual emotional differences and laterality effects in healthy and persons with multiple sclerosis
ABSTRACT
A study examining affective information processing in persons with Multiple Sclerosis and healthy adults was carried out. It was hypothesized that individual characteristics could modulate participants’ emotional categorization and reaction times for categorization decisions. For example, individuals with negative valenced emotional profile (e.g. anxious) should choose negative emotional alternatives faster and more frequently. Participants consisted of two different populations: 80 right-handed healthy French-speakers, and 40 right-handed French- speakers with multiple sclerosis. The results showed a positive correlation between high- level of negative emotional sensibility and emotional categorization (decision and decision speed) for affective information presented on the right-side of the screen. For all participants there were more frequent emotional choices and faster decisions for left-side presented emotional alternatives. It seems individuals’ emotional differences in general and in MS populations modulate hemispheric asymmetry of processing emotional judgments.

Cite this paper
nullPahlavan, F. , Lubart, T. , Montreuil, M. , Jacob, S. , Jacquet, A. , Lemoine, C. , Petropoulou, H. and Zenasni, F. (2010) Emotional categorization: Individual emotional differences and laterality effects in healthy and persons with multiple sclerosis. Health, 2, 1349-1365. doi: 10.4236/health.2010.212201.
References
[1]   Schwarz, N. and Clore, G. L. (1983) Mood, misattribution, and judgements of well-being: informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513-523.

[2]   Ellis, H.C. and Ashbrook, P.W. (1989) The “state” of mood and memory research: A selective review. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 1-21.

[3]   Bless, H. and Fielder, K. (1995) Affective states and the influence of activated general knowledge structures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 766-778.

[4]   Isen, A.M., Means, B., Patrick, R. and Nowichi, G. (1982) Some factors influencing decision-making strategy and risk-taking. In Clark M.S. and Fiske, S.T. Eds., Affect and cognition: The 17th annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 243-261.

[5]   Pahlavan, F., Bonnet, P. and Duda, D. (2000) Human motor responses to simultaneous aversive stimulation and failure on a valued task. Psychological Reports, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86, 232-242.

[6]   Wyer, R. S. (2004) Social comprehension and judgment: The role of situation models, narratives, and implicit theories, Erlbaum, New Jersey.

[7]   Gray, J.R. (2004) Integration of Emotion and Cognitive Control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 33, 46-48.

[8]   Bower, G.H. (1981) Mood and memory. American Psy-chologist, 36, 129-148.

[9]   Blaney, P.H. (1986) Affect and memory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 229-246.

[10]   Niedenthal, P.M. and Setterlund, M.B. (1994) Emotion congruence in perception. Personality and Social Psy-chology Bulletin, 20, 401-411.

[11]   Niedenthal, P.M., Halberstadt, J. and Setterlund, M.B. (1997) Being happy and seeing “happy”: Emotional state facilitates visual word recognition. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 594-624.

[12]   Carver, C.S., Sutton, S.K. and Scheier, M.F. (2000) Ac-tion, emotion, and personality: Emerging conceptual in-tegration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 741-751.

[13]   Davidson, R.J. (1998) Affective style and affective disorders: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 307-330.

[14]   Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D. and Caruso, D. (2002) The posi-tive psychology of emotional intelligence. In Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J. Eds., The handbook of positive psychol-ogy, Oxford University Press, New York, 159-171.

[15]   Borkenau, P. and Mauer, N. (2007) Well-Being and the accessibility of pleasant and unpleasant concepts. Euro-pean Journal of Personality, 21, 169-189.

[16]   Niedenthal, P.M. and Halberstadt, J.H. (2000). Grounding categories in emotional response. In: Forgas, J.P. Ed., Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition. Studies in emotion and social interaction, second series, New York, Cambridge University Press, 357-386.

[17]   Manguno-Mire, G.M., Constans, J.I. and Geer, J.H. (2005) Anxiety-related differences in affective categori-zations of lexical stimuli. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 197-213.

[18]   Fox, E. (1996) Selective processing of threatening words in anxiety: The role of awareness. Cognition & Emotion, 10, 449-480.

[19]   Forgas, J.P. (2000). The interplay of affect and cognition: The mediating role of general knowledge structures. In Forgas, J.P. Ed., Feeling and Thinking: The role of affect in social cognition, Cambridge University Press, Cam-bridge, 1-28.

[20]   Rusting, C. L. (1999) Interactive effects of personality and mood on emotion-congruent memory and judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1073- 1086.

[21]   Miller, L. (1986) Is alexithymia a disconnection syndrome? A neuropsychological perspective. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 16, 199-209.

[22]   Shipko, S. (1982) Further reflections on Psychosomatic theory: Alexithymia and Interhemispheric specialization. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 37, 83-86.

[23]   Tabibnia, G. and Zaidel, E. (2005) Alexithymia, interhe-mispheric transfer, and right hemispheric specialization: A critical review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74, 81-92.

[24]   Groom, C.J., Sherman, J.W., Lu, L., Conrey, F.R. and Keijzer, B.S.C. (2005) Judging compound social catego-ries: Compound familiarity and compatibility as deter-minants of processing mode. Social Cognition, 23, 291- 323.

[25]   Locke, V., Macrae, C.N. and Eaton, J.L. (2005) Is person categorization modulated by exemplar typicality? Is person categorization modulated by exemplar typicality? Social Cognition, 23, 417-428.

[26]   Murphy, G.L. and Medin, D.L. (1985) The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review, 92, 289-316.

[27]   Smith, E.E. and Sleman, S.A. (1994) Similarity-versus rule-based categorization. Memory and Cognition, 22, 377-386.

[28]   Wittenbrink, B., Hilton, J.L. and Gist, P.L. (1998) In search of similarity: Stereotypes as naive theories in social categorization. Social Cognition, 16, 31-55.

[29]   Barsalou, L.W. (1983) Ad hoc categories. Memory and Cognition, 11, 211-217.

[30]   Niedenthal, P.M., Halberstadt, J.H. and Innes-Ker, A.H. (1999) Emotional response categorization. Psychological Review, 106, 337-361.

[31]   Forgas, J.P. and George, J.M. (2001) Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An informa-tion processing perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 3-34.

[32]   Isen, A.M. (2000) Some perspectives on positive affect and self-regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 184-187.

[33]   Dalle, N. and Niedenthal, P.M. (2003) Conceptual reorganization during emotional states/La reorganisation de l'espace conceptuel au cours des etats emotionnels. L’Année Psychologique, 103, 585-616.

[34]   Niedenthal, P.M., Auxiette, C., Nugier, A., Dalle, N., Bonin, P. and Fayol, M. (2004) A prototype analysis of the French category “emotion”. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 289-312.

[35]   Isen, A.M. and Daubman, K.A. (1984) The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1206-1217.

[36]   Isen, A.M., Niedenthal, P.M. and Cantor, N.(1992) An influence of positive affect on social categorization. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 65-78.

[37]   Hansen, C.H. and Hansen, R.D. (1994) Automatic emo-tion: Attention and facial efference. In: Niedenthal, P.M. and Kitayama, S. Eds., The heart’s eye: Emotional influ-ences in perception and attention, San Diego, CA, Aca-demic Press, Inc, 217-243.

[38]   Ledoux, J. (1994) The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. Touchstone book, New York.

[39]   MacLeod, C. and Hagan, R. (1992) Individual differences in the selective processing of threatening information, and emotional responses to a stressful life event. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 151-161.

[40]   Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P. and Williams, R. (1993) Subli-minal processing of emotional information in anxiety and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 304-311.

[41]   Mathews, A., Mackintosh, B. and Fulcher, E. P. (1997) Cognitive biases in anxiety and attention to threat. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1, 340-345.

[42]   Vallortigara, G. and Rogers, L.J. (2005) Survival with an asymmetrical brain: Advantages and disadvantages of cerebral lateralization. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 574-633.

[43]   Davidson, R. and Hugdahl, K. (1995) Brain asymmetry. The MIT Press, Cambridge.

[44]   Borod, J.C., Andelman, F., Obler, L.K., Tweedy, J.R. and Welkowitz, J. (1992) Right hemiphere specialization for the identification of emotional words and sentences: Evidence from Stroke patients. Neuropsychologia, 30, 827-844.

[45]   Van Strien, J.W. and Morpurgo, M. (1992) Opposite he-mispheric activations as a result of emotionality threaten-ing and non-threatening words. Neuropsychologia, 30, 845-848.

[46]   Enloe, A.A., Ilardi, S.S., Atchley, R.A., Cromwell, R.L., and Sewell, K.W. (2001) Word valence, attention, and hemispheric activity in depressed, remitted, and nonde-pressed controls. Brain and Cognition, 46, 129-133.

[47]   Meyer, M.B. and Smith, B.D. (1992) Cerebral processing of nonverbal affective stimuli: Differential effects of cognitive and affective sets on hemispheric asymmetry. Biological Psychology, 24, 67-84.

[48]   Sanders, J.D., McClure, K.A. and Zarate, M.A. (2004). Cerebral hemisphere asymmetries in social perception: Perceiving and responding to the individual and the group. Social Cognition, 22, 279-291.

[49]   Koivisto, M. and Laine, M. (1999) Strategies of semantic categorization in the cerebral hemispheres. Brain and Language, 66, 341-357.

[50]   Zaidel, D.W. (1987) Hemispheric asymmetry in long- term semantic relationships. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 4, 321-332.

[51]   Vitkovitch, M. and Underwood, G. (1991) Hemispheric differences in the processing of pictures of typical and atypical semantic category members. Cortex, 27, 475- 480.

[52]   Henriques, J.B. and Davidson, R.J (1991) Left frontal hypoactivation in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psy-chology, 100, 535-545.

[53]   Howard, R., Fenwick, P., Brown, D. and Norton, R. (1992) Relationship between CNV asymmetries and in-dividual differences in cognitive performance, personality and gender. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 13, 191-197.

[54]   Davidson, R.J., Marshall, J.R., Tomarken, A.J. and He-nriques, J.B. (2000) While a phobic waits: Regional brain electrical and autonomic activity in social phobics during anticipation of public speaking. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 85-95.

[55]   Lumley, M.A. and Sielky, K. (2000) Alexithymia, gender, and hemispheric functioning. Comprarative Psychiatry, 41, 352-359.

[56]   Spalletta, G., Pasini, A., Costa, A., De Angelis, D., Ramundo, N., Paolucci, S., et al. (2001) Alexithymic features in stroke: Effects of laterality and gender. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 944-950

[57]   Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L., and Bechara, A. (2003) Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain, 126, 1790-1800.

[58]   DeHouwer, J., Hermans, D., Rothermund, K. and Wen-tura, D. (2002) Affective priming of semantic categorisa-tion responses. Cognition and Emotion, 16, 643-666.

[59]   Gohm, C. L. and Clore, G. L. (2000) Individual differ-ences in emotional experience: Mapping available scales to processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 679-697.

[60]   Jacob, S., Lubart, T. I. and Getz, I. (1999) Interrelations entre les aspects émotionnels de la personnalité. In: Huteau, M. and Lautrey, J. Eds, Approches différentielles en psychologie, Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes Presses, 365-368.

[61]   Zenasni, F., Lubart, T., Pahlavan, F., Jacob, S., Jacquet, A. Y. and Lemoine, C. (2003) Traits émotionnels, intelligence émotionnelle: Intérêt de ces concepts et étude de leur interrelations. Revue Psychiatrie, Sciences Humaines et Neurosciences, 1, 19-27.

[62]   Montreuil, M. And Pedinielli, J.L. (1995) Caractéristiques du traitement visuel parallèle chez des sujets sains alexithymiques. Application de la Toronto Alexithymia Scale et du Test de Saisie Visuelle Parallèle. L’Encéphale, 21, 589-595.

[63]   Parker J.D.A., Keightley M.L., Smith, C.T. and Taylor G.J. (1999) Interhemispheric transfer deficit in alexithymia: an experimental study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 464-468.

[64]   TenHouten, W.D., Hoppe, K.D., Bogen, J.E. and Walter, D.O.(1989) Alexithymia: an experimental study of cere-bral commissurotomy patients and normal control subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 312-316.

[65]   Zeitlin, S.B., Lane, R.D., O’Leary, D.S. and Schrift, M.J. (1989) Interhemispheric transfer deficit and alexithymia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1434-1439.

[66]   Blonder, L.X., Bowers, D and Heilman, K.M. (1991) The role of the right hemisphere in emotional communication. Brain, 114, 1115-1127.

[67]   Mandal, M.K, Borod, J.C., Hasthana, H.S., Mohanty, A., Mohanty, S, & Koff E. (1999) Effects of lesion variables and emotion type on the perception of facial emotion. Journal of Nervous Mental Diseases, 187, 603-609.

[68]   Rief, W., Heuser, J. and Fichter, M.M. (1996) What does the Toronto Alexithymia Scale TAS-R measure? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 423-429.

[69]   Hendryx, M.S., Haviland, M.G., Shaw, D.G. (1991) Di-mensions of alexithymia and their relationships to anxiety and depression. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 227-237.

[70]   Pelletier, J., Montreuil, M., Habib, M., Ali Cherif, A. and Lyon-Caen, O. (1996) Alexithymia and multiple sclerosis: alteration of interhemispheric transfer. European Journal of Neurology, 3, 63.

[71]   Goldman Consensus Group, New York City (2005) The Goldman Consensus statement on depression in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 11, 328-337.

[72]   Jouvent, R., Montreuil, M., Benoit, N., Lubetzki, C., Des Lauriers, A., Tournier-Lasserve, E., Widlocher, D., Lhermitte, F. and Lyon-Caen, O. (1989) Cognitive im-pairment, emotional disturbances and duration of multiple sclerosis. In: Jensen, K., Knudsen, L., Stenager, E. and Grant, I. Eds., Mental disorders, cognitive deficits and their treatment in multiple sclerosis, John Libbey London, 139-145.

[73]   Korostil, M. and Feinstein, A. (2007) Anxiety disorders and their clinical correlates in multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple Sclerosis, 13, 67-72.

[74]   Feinstein, A., Feinstein, K., Gray, T. and O’Connor, P. (1997) Prevalence and neurobehavioral correlates of pa-thological laughing and crying in multiple sclerosis. Arc-hive Neurology, 54, 1116-1121.

[75]   Feinstein, A. (2004) The neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 157-163.

[76]   Schiffer, R. B. (2001) Psychiatric management in multiple sclerosis. American Psychiatric Association, Annual Meeting.

[77]   Stenager, E., Knudsen, L. and Jensen, K. (1994) Multiple sclerosis: Correlation of anxiety, physical impairment and cognitive dysfunction. The Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 15, 99-103.

[78]   Deloire, M.S.A., Salort, E., Bonnet, M., Arimone, Y., Boudineau, M., Amieva, H., Barroso, B., Ouallet, J.C., Pachai, C., Galliaud, E., Petry, K.G., Dousset, V., Fabrigoule, C. and Brochet, B. (2005) Cognitive impairment as marker of diffuse brain abnormalities in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 76, 519-526.

[79]   Sanfilipo, M.P., Benedict, R.H.B., Weinstock-Guttman, B., & Bakshi, R. (2006) Gray and white matter brain atrophy and neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 66, 685-692.

[80]   Kurtzke, J.F. (1983) Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis and the disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology, 33, 1444-1452.

[81]   Prigatano, G.P., Amin, K. and Rosenstein, L.D. (1995) Administration and scoring manual for the BNI screen for higher cerebral functions. Phoenix, AZ: Barrow Neu-rological Institute.

[82]   Spielberger (1993) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée.

[83]   Beck, R.A. and Steer, G.K. (1998) Inventaire de dépression II. Les éditions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée, Paris.

[84]   Bagby, R.M., Parker, J.D.A. and Taylor, G.J. (1994) The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 23-32.

[85]   Taylor, G.J. and Taylor, H.L. (1997) Alexithymia. In: M. McCallum & W. E. Piper Psychological mindedness: A contemporary understanding. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erl-baum Associates Publishers, US, 77-104.

[86]   Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M. and Luminet, O. (2000) As-sessment of alexithymia: Self-report and observer-rated measures. In: Bar-On, R. and Parker, J.D.A. Eds., The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace, San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass, US, 301- 319.

[87]   Jessimer, M. and Markham, R. (1997) Alexthymia: A right hemisphere dysfunction specific to recognition of certain facial expressions. Brain and Cognition, 34, 246-258.

[88]   Judd, C. M. (2000) Everyday data analysis in social psy-chology: Comparisons of linear models. In: Reis, H.T. and Judd, C.M. Eds., Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, US, 2000, 370-393.

[89]   Smith, S. D., Dixon, M. J., Bulman-Fleming, M. B., Birch, C., Laudi, N. and Wagar, B. (2005) Experience with a category alters hemispheric asymmetries for the detection of anomalies. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1911-1915.

[90]   Campbell, A. and Muncer, S. (1994) Sex differences in aggression: Social representation and social roles. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 233-240.

[91]   Salthouse, T. A. (1996) The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological Review, 103, 403-428.

[92]   Kujala, P., Portin, R., Revonsuo, A., Ruutiainen, J. (1994) Automatic and controlled information processing in mul-tiple sclerosis, Brain, 117, 1115-1126.

[93]   Audoin, B., Van Au Dong, M., Malikova, I., Confort- Gouny, S., Ibarrola, D., Cozzone, P.J., Pelletier, J. and Ranjeva, J.P. (2006 ) Functional magnetic resonance im-aging and cognition at the very early stage of MS. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 245, 87-91.

 
 
Top