A quick, efficient and environmentally beneficial approach for the extraction of alkaloids in goldenseal based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) is presented. PHWE was evaluated following the extraction of hydrastine and berberine which are the two main alkaloids of goldenseal. The effects of temperature and other parameters on extraction yields were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The extraction yields were compared to those achieved through reflux and ultrasonic extraction methods. PHWE employed hot water at an optimal temperature of 140℃, a pressure of 50 bars and flow rate of 1 mL.min-1 for extraction experiments conducted in the dynamic mode. Both PHWE and conventional methods achieved comparable extraction yields. Reflux and ultrasonic extractions had procedures that were slower (over 6 h) and employed large quantities (200 mL) of organic solvents. The PHWE method was simple and relatively fast as extraction was achieved in 15 min. At 95% confidence level (n = 3), reflux and ultrasonic methods recorded extraction yields that were not significantly different from that of PHWE. Moreover, PHWE employed a more readily available “green” solvent, (water) to achieve comparable results to those of conventional methods which utilized organic solvents. The percentage relative standard deviations (%RSD) for the extraction yields were less than 3% in all cases indicating the high reproducibility of the method. However, when using PHWE to extract thermally labile analytes like alkaloids, degradation effects also occurred. Increasing the temperatures certainly achieved higher extraction yields but also led to degradation of these thermally labile compounds indicating a necessity for optimization.
 A. T. Borchers, C. L. Keen, J. S. Stern and E. M. Gershwin, “Inflammation and Native American Medicine: The Role of Botanicals,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2000, pp. 339-347.
 N. P. Brown and M. C. Roman, “Determination of Hydrastine and Berberine in Goldenseal Raw Materials, Extractsand Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV: Collaborative Study,” Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 91, No. 4, 2008, pp. 694-701.
 H. A. Weber, M. K. Zart, S. L. Ferguson, J. G. Greaves, A. P. Clark, R. K. Harris and D. J. C. S. Smith, “Separation and Quantitation of Isoquinoline Alkaloids Occurring in Goldenseal,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2001, pp. 87-95. doi:10.1081/JLC-100000329
 L.-Q. Tang, W. Wei, I.-M. Chen and S. Liu, “Effects of Berberine on Diabetes Induced by Alloxan and a HighFat/High-Cholesterol Diet in Rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 108, No. 1, 2006, pp. 109-115. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.019
 P. K. Gupta, M. Hubbard, B. Gurley and H. P. Hendrickson, “Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Hydrastine and Berberine in Human Serum,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1021-1026. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.01.036
 E. S. Ong and S. M. Len, “Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of Berberine, Baicalein and Glycyrrhizin in Medicinal Plants,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 482, No. 1, 2003, pp. 81-89. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00196-X
 A. Sinclair and P. M Catling, “Ontario Goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis, Populations in Relation to Habitat Size, Paths, and Woodland Edges,” Canadian FieldNaturalist, Vol. 114, No. 4, 2000, pp. 652-655.
 F. Li, S. Sun, J. Wang and D. Wang, “Chromatography of Medicinal Plants and Chinese Traditional Medicines,” Biomedical Chromatography, Vol. 12, No.2, 1998, pp. 78-85. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0801(199803/04)12:2<78::AID-BMC726>3.0.CO;2-U
 H. J. Issaq, “Capillary Electrophoresis of Natural Products-II,” Electrophoresis, Vol. 20, No. 15-16, 1999, pp. 3190-3202. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(19991001)20:15/16<3190::AID-ELPS3190>3.0.CO;2-K
 S. B. Hawthorne, S. Trembley, C. L. Moniot, C. B. Grabanski and D. J. Miller, “Static Subcritical Water Extraction with Simultaneous Solid-Phaseextraction for Determining Polycyclic Aromatichydrocarbons on Environmental Solids,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 886, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 237-244.
 E. V. Petersson, J. Liu, P. J. R. Sjoberg, R. Danielsson and C. Turner, “Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of Anthocyanins from Red Onion: A Study Onextraction and Degradation Rates,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 663, No. 1, 2010, pp. 27-32. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.023
 G. W. Schieffer and K. Pfeiffer, “Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Multiple, Ultrasonically-Assisted Extractions of Hydrastine and Berberine from Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) with Subsequent HPLC Assay,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, Vol. 24, No. 16, 2001, pp. 2415-2427.
 B. Liu, W. Li, Y. Chang, W. Dong and L. Ni, “Extraction of Berberine from Rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2006, pp. 1056-1060. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2006.01.034
 C. C. Teo, S. N. Tan, J. W. H. Yong, C. S. Hew and E. S. Ong, “Pressurized Hot Water Extraction,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1217, No. 16, 2010, pp. 2484-2494. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.12.050
 C. L. Hsieh, J. J. Lin, S. Y. Chiang, S. Y. Su, N. Y. Tang, G. G. Lin, I. H. Lin, C .H. Liu, C. Y. Hsiang, J. C. Chen and T. Y. Ho, “Gastrodiaelata Modulated Activator Protein 1 via c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway in Kainic Acid-Induced Epilepsy in Rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2007, pp. 241-247. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.024
 T. Andersson, K. Hartonen, T. HyOtylainen and M.-L. Riekkola, “Stability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Pressurised Hot Water,” Analyst, Vol. 128, No. 2, 2003, pp. 150-155. doi:10.1039/b211447j
 M. Co, C. Zettersten, L. Nyholm P. R. Sjoberg and C. Turner, “Degradation Effects in the Extraction of Antioxidants from Birch Bark Using Water at Elevated Temperature and Pressure,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 716, 2011, pp. 40-48. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.04.038
 K. Hartonen, J. Parshintsev, K. Sandberg, E. Bergelin, L. Nisula and M.-L. Riekkola, “Isolation of Flavonoids from Aspen Knotwood by Pressurized Hot Water Extraction and Comparison with Other Extraction Techniques,” Talanta, Vol. 74, No. 1, 2007, pp. 32-38. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2007.05.040
 R. N. Gupta and I. D. Spencer, “Biosynthetic Incorporation of One-Carbon Units into Berberine and Hydrastine,” Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1965, pp. 133-144. doi:10.1139/v65-016