Back
 APE  Vol.3 No.3 , August 2013
Facilitators and Barriers of External Coaches’ Involvement into School-Based Extracurricular Sports Activities: A Qualitative Study
Abstract: School-based extracurricular sports activity (SBECSA) provides one of the main opportunities for adolescents to play sports in Japan. However, maintaining active SBECSA is difficult because of the large burden on teachers to manage SBECSA and a lack of SBECSA teachers who can coach expertly. To resolve these issues, the recruitment of external coaches has been promoted. However, the number of coaches and frequency of coaching are not sufficient for the current demand. Additionally, it is not clear how to promote the engagement of external coaches. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to explore a variety of facilitators and barriers associated with the involvement of external coaches into SBECSA. Twenty-five external coaches were recruited from junior high and high schools across Japan. Data obtained through personal semi-structured interviews were analyzed using the KJ method (a qualitative type of analyses). As a result, seven facilitators (positive feelings, adequate system, positive social support, comfortable climate of SBECSA, environment, growth of external coach, network building), and six barriers (negative feelings, inadequate system, lack of support, uncomfortable climate of SBECSA, poor environment, burdens) were identified. In conclusion, SBECSA would become more attractive for external coaches by enhancing facilitators and reducing barriers.
Cite this paper: Aoyagi, K. , Ishii, K. , Shibata, A. , Arai, H. , Hibi, C. & Oka, K. (2013). Facilitators and Barriers of External Coaches’ Involvement into School-Based Extracurricular Sports Activities: A Qualitative Study. Advances in Physical Education, 3, 116-124. doi: 10.4236/ape.2013.33020.
References

[1]   All Japan High School Athletic Federation (2012). News from head office. http://www.zen-koutairen.com/f_publish.html

[2]   Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012). Children’s participation in cul tural and leisure activities. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4901.0

[3]   Barnett, L. A. (2007). “Winners” and “Losers”: The effects of being allowed or denied entry into competitive extracurricular activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 39, 316-344.

[4]   Cote, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4, 307-322. doi:10.1260/174795409789623892

[5]   Dotterer, A. M., McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2007). Implications of out-of-school activities for school engagement in African Ameri can adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 391-401. doi:10.1007/s10964-006-9161-3

[6]   Edwards, M. B., Kanters, M. A., & Bocarro, J. N. (2011). Opportunities for extracurricular physical activity in North Carolina middle schools. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8, 597-605.

[7]   Flintoff, A. (2008). Targeting Mr average: Participation, gender equity and school sport partnerships. Sport, Education and Society, 13, 393-411. doi:10.1080/13573320802445017

[8]   Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42, 698-713. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.698

[9]   Griggs, G. (2010). For sale—Primary physical education. £20 per hour or nearest offer. Education 3-13, 38, 39-46. doi:10.1080/03004270903099793

[10]   Hokkaido Junior High School Physical Culture Association (2006). As regards external coach in Hokkaido junior high school athletic meet ing.

[11]   Ibaraki Prefecture Sports Promotion Council (2007). The way of future school-based extracurricular sports activity. http://www.edu.pref.ibaraki.jp/board/bunspo/sports/setti/toushin.pdf

[12]   Japan Senior High School Teachers and Staff Union (2008). Final re port of actual condition survey for issues of school-based extracur ricular sports activity in 2006.

[13]   Kanagawa Prefecture Board of Education (2008). Research report for sports activity of secondary school student. http://www.pref.kanagawa.jp/uploaded/attachment/176796.pdf

[14]   Kawakita, J. (2004). Zoku hassouhou. Tokyo: Chuokoron-Shinsha, Inc.

[15]   Kochi Prefecture Board of Education (2011). Implementation guidance of practice support project promoting local sport human resources.

[16]   LaVoi, N. M., & Dutove, J. K. (2012). Barriers and supports for female coaches: An ecological model. Sports Coaching Review, 1, 17-37. doi:10.1080/21640629.2012.695891

[17]   Lipscomb, S. (2007). Secondary school extracurricular involvement and academic achievement: A fixed effects approach. Economics of Education Review, 26, 463-472. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2006.02.006

[18]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Ja pan (1997). Report of investigative research for way of school-based extracurricular sports activity. http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/
chousa/sports/001/toushin/971201.htm


[19]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2008). The course of study in junior high school. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/new-cs/youryou/1304424.htm

[20]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2009a). The course of study in higher school. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/new-cs/youryou/1304427.htm

[21]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2009b). White paper on education, culture, sports, science and technology. http://www.mext.go.jp/_menu/hakusho/html/bhpab
200901/1295623.htm


[22]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2010). Sport-oriented nation strategy: Sport community Japan. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/sports/rikkoku/1297182.htm

[23]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2011). Basic law of sports. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/sports/kihonhou/attach/1307658.htm

[24]   Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2012). National survey result of physical and athletic capacity. http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/toukei/chousa04/tairyoku/kekka/k_
detail/1326589.htm


[25]   Miyagi Prefecture Board of Education (2008). Research for school based extracurricular sports activity of secondary school.

[26]   Nagano Prefecture Board of Education (2010). Companion of school based extracurricular sports activity.

[27]   Nakazawa, A. (2011). A postwar history of extracurricular sports acti vities in Japan (1): Focusing on the transition of the actual situation and policy. Hitotsubashi Bulletin of Social Sciences, 3, 25-46.

[28]   Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association (2012). Spread sheet of research for number of member school and student. http://www18.ocn.ne.jp/~njpa/kamei.html

[29]   Nishijima, H., Yano, H., & Nakazawa, A. (2007). A sociological study of coaching and management of club activities in junior high schools: Based on a questionnaire survey to teachers of sports club activities in two prefectures and Tokyo metropolitan. Bulletin of Faculty of Education in the University of Tokyo, 47, 101-130.

[30]   Saitama Prefecture Board of Education (2011). Selection policy of first high school teacher adaptation exam in 2011’s Saitama prefecture.

[31]   Sasakawa Sports Foundation (2011). Installation of sports leader bank in each prefecture. Sports White Paper: Future That Sports Should to Aspire, 86-88.

[32]   Schaefer, D. R., Simpkins, S. D., Vest, A. E., & Price, C. D. (2011). The contribution of extracurricular activities to adolescent friend ships: New insights through social network. Developmental Psycho logy, 47, 1141-1152. doi:10.1037/a0024091

[33]   School-Based Extracurricular Sports Activity in Junior High School “Nagano Model” Exploratory Committee (2004). Proposal of school based extracurricular sports activity in junior high school “Nagano model”. http://www.pref.nagano.lg.jp/kyouiku/taiiku/bukatu/teigen/teigen.pdf

[34]   Scupin, R. (1997). The KJ method: A technique for analyzing data derived from Japanese ethnology. Human Organization, 56, 233-237.

[35]   Shernoff, J. D., & Vandell, L. D. (2007). Engagement in after-school program activities: Quality of experience from the perspective of participants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 891-903. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9183-5

[36]   Shioya, K. (2002). External coach and volunteer in school-based extra curricular sports activity. Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 52, 285-289.

[37]   Sport Council Wales (2009). Young people’s participation in sport. Sportsupdate, 62, 11-16.

[38]   Stewart, V., Lindsay, O., & Trevor, C. (2011). The role of the coach in facilitating positive youth development: moving from theory to prac tice. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 33-48. doi:10.1080/10413200.2010.511423

[39]   Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education (2008). Companion of coach ing school-based extracurricular activity for external coach. http://www.kyoiku.metro.tokyo.jp/press/bukatsu_tebiki.pdf

[40]   Tomioka, A. (1993). Organization and human behavior. Tokyo: Haku to-shobo, Inc.

[41]   Whiteley, R. F., & Richard, G. (2012). Timetabling and extracurricular activities: A study of teachers’ attitudes towards preparation time. Ma nagement in Education, 26, 6-12. doi:10.1177/0892020611
426894

[42]   Williams, J. B., Hay, J. P., & Macdonald, D. (2011). The outsourcing of health, sport and physical educational work: A state of play. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 16, 399-415. doi:10.1080/17408989.2011.582492

[43]   Yamagata Prefecture Board of Education (2010). As regards a way of future school-based extracurricular sports activity. http://www.pref.yamagata.jp/ou/kyoiku/700021/21unndoubukatudouarikata.pdf

 
 
Top