The purpose of this study was to evaluate parameters of drinking
water quality from hand-pumps in Ghana, Mali, and Niger, evaluate possible
sources of parameters, and provide an overview of potential health effects in
the population. Concentrations of 22 parameters in 3337 groundwater samples
were analyzed and compared with World Health Organization drinking water
guidelines. In general, F, Mn, and Al had relatively larger and more common
rates of occurrence, though there was by country. For F, there were reports of
skeletal fluorosis in
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