The oral cavity is perpetually
colonized by different species of microorganisms and at times it is difficult
to characterize the periodontal pathogen causing breakdown of tissue and bone.
But over the years, based on scientific knowledge, it has been observed that
various gram negative anaerobic bacteria have been involved with the initiation
of periodontal disease. Based on literature reviews, a study was undertaken
to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Anacardium
occidentale (cashew) leaf extract on Porphyromonas
gingivalisand Prevotella intermedia. Methanol and aqueous
extracts of cashew leaves were prepared. Its antimicrobial activity against P.
gingivalis and P. intermedia was tested using the agar diffusion
method at various dilutions of 75 μ, 50 μl, 25 μl, 10 μl and 5 μl respectively.
0.2% Clorhexidine gluconate (CHX) was
used as control. Cultures of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia strains were maintained on Kanamycin blood agar. The agar
plates were then incubated at 37?C for 72 hours after which the zone of
inhibition was measured and the mean was recorded for each test solution. The results of this study demonstrated that, for both P.
gingivalis and P. intermedia, the highest concentration (75 μl) of
both the extracts showed maximum antimicrobial action. For P. ginigvalis,
the aqueous extract demonstrated significant inhibitory activity compared to
the methanolic extract (p = 0.005), which was comparable to that of CHX. For P.
intermedia, similar results were observed with aqueous extract being more
effective compared to methanolic (p = 0.007), however, CHX was most effective
compared to both the extracts (p = 0.007). This study revealed that Anacardium
occidentale leaf extracts have efficient antimicrobial
activity against P. gingivalis & P. intermedia. Hence, this preliminary study suggests
that the antimicrobial action of A. occidentale leaf could be utilized
for the preparation of chemical plaque control formulations.
Cite this paper
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