ABSTRACT Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common and in its severe form potentially life threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis is defined as a diffuse inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder due to an infectious or noninfectious etiology resulting in bleeding from the bladder mucosa. Hemorrhagic cystitis is characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms including dysuria, hematuria and hemorrhage. The most common cause is a bacterial infection that usually responds promptly to treatment. But chronic and recurrent hemorrhagic cystitis often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Infectious etiologies are less common causes of chronic hemorrhagic cystitis except in immunocompromised hosts like bone marrow transplant recipients. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a significant complication of bone marrow transplantation which influences economic and survival outcome. Hemorrhagic cystitis can be divided into two classes according to onset time; early and late onset time. Earlyonset hemorrhagic cystitis is commonly associated used with chemo-radiotherapy protocols in some of the preparatory regimens. More than one factor is accused in the etiology of late onset hemorrhagic cystitis. Here, we present a patient whose hematuria started after 54 days from allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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