Ultra-Low Power, Low Phase Noise 10 GHz LC VCO in the Subthreshold Regime

Affiliation(s)

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

A new design for an ultra-low power, low phase noise differential 10 GHz LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) which is biased in the subthreshold regime, is presented in the 0.18 μm CMOS process, for the first time. The designed circuit topology is an NMOS only cross-coupled LC-tank VCO which has an extra symmetric centre tapped inductor between the source ends of the cross-coupled transistors. Using this inductor leads to an improvement of the phase noise of VCO about 3.5 dB. At the supply voltage of 0.46 V, the output phase noise is －107.8 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency from the carrier frequency of 10.53 GHz, so that the dc power consumption is only 0.346 mW. Tuning range is between 10.53 GHz to 11.35 GHz which is 7.5% and the figure of merit is －193.8 dB, which this result shows that this is the first VCO design in the subthreshold regime at this frequency. This VCO can be used for multi-standard wireless LAN communication protocols 802.11a/b/g easily by a frequency division of 2 or 4 respectively.

KEYWORDS

LC Voltage Controlled Oscillator; Low Power; Low Phase Noise; Differential 10 GHz; Subthreshold

LC Voltage Controlled Oscillator; Low Power; Low Phase Noise; Differential 10 GHz; Subthreshold

Cite this paper

D. Fathi and A. Nejad, "Ultra-Low Power, Low Phase Noise 10 GHz LC VCO in the Subthreshold Regime,"*Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 350-355. doi: 10.4236/cs.2013.44047.

D. Fathi and A. Nejad, "Ultra-Low Power, Low Phase Noise 10 GHz LC VCO in the Subthreshold Regime,"

References

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[5] S.-L. Jang, C.-J. Huang, C.-W. Hsue and C.-W. Chang, “A 0.3 V Cross-Coupled VCO Using Dynamic Threshold MOSFET,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2010, pp. 166-168. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2010.2040220

[6] M. Brandolini, P. Rossi, D. Manstretta and F. Svelto, “Toward Multistandard Mobile Terminals—Fully Inte grated Receivers Requirements and Architectures,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2005, pp. 1026-1038. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2005.843505

[7] L. Hanil and S. Mohammadi, “A Subthreshold Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for Ultra Low Power Applica tions,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 17, No. 11, 2007, pp. 796-798. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2007.908057

[8] A. Hajimiri and T. H. Lee, “A General Theory of Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators,” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1998, pp. 179-194. doi:10.1109/4.658619

[9] H.-F. Teng, S.-L. Jang and M. H. Juang, “A Unified Model for High-Frequency Current Noise of MOSFETs,” Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 47, No. 11, 2003, pp. 2043-2048. doi:10.1016/S0038-1101(03)00248-X

[10] E. Hegazi, J. Rael and A. Abidi, “The Designer’s Guide to High-Purity Oscillators,” Springer, Berlin, 2004.

[11] C.-Y. Jeong and C. Yoo, “5-GHz Low-Phase Noise CMOS Quadrature VCO,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2006, pp. 609-611. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2006.884908

[12] P. Dongmin and C. SeongHwan, “Design Techniques for a Low-Voltage VCO with Wide Tuning Range and Low Sensitivity to Environmental Variations,” IEEE Transac tions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2009, pp. 767-774.

[13] J. Jaeyoung, P. Upadyaya, L. Peng and H. Deukhyoun, “Compact Sub-1mW Low Phase Noise CMOS LC-VCO Based on Power Reduction Technique,” 2011 IEEE MTT S International Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), Baltimore, 5-10 June 2011, pp. 1-4.

[1] K. Kwok and H. C. Luong, “Ultra-Low-Voltage High CMOS VCOs Using Transformer Feedback,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2005, pp. 652-660. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2005.843614

[2] J. Jaeyoung, Z. Siqi, L. Peng, Y. E. Chen and H. Deuk hyoun, “22-pJ/bit Energy-Efficient 2.4-GHz Implantable OOK Transmitter for Wireless Biotelemetry Systems: In Vitro Experiments Using Rat Skin-Mimic,” IEEE Trans actions on Microwave Theory and Echniques, Vol. 58, No. 12, 2010, pp. 4102-4111.

[3] O. Nam-Jin and L. Sang-Gug, “Current Reused LC VCOs,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Let ters, Vol. 15, No. 11, 2005, pp. 736-738. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2005.858993

[4] S. L. Jang and C.-F. Lee, “A Low Voltage and Power LC VCO Implemented with Dynamic Threshold Voltage MOSFETS,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2007, pp. 376-378. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2007.895720

[5] S.-L. Jang, C.-J. Huang, C.-W. Hsue and C.-W. Chang, “A 0.3 V Cross-Coupled VCO Using Dynamic Threshold MOSFET,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2010, pp. 166-168. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2010.2040220

[6] M. Brandolini, P. Rossi, D. Manstretta and F. Svelto, “Toward Multistandard Mobile Terminals—Fully Inte grated Receivers Requirements and Architectures,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2005, pp. 1026-1038. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2005.843505

[7] L. Hanil and S. Mohammadi, “A Subthreshold Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for Ultra Low Power Applica tions,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 17, No. 11, 2007, pp. 796-798. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2007.908057

[8] A. Hajimiri and T. H. Lee, “A General Theory of Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators,” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1998, pp. 179-194. doi:10.1109/4.658619

[9] H.-F. Teng, S.-L. Jang and M. H. Juang, “A Unified Model for High-Frequency Current Noise of MOSFETs,” Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 47, No. 11, 2003, pp. 2043-2048. doi:10.1016/S0038-1101(03)00248-X

[10] E. Hegazi, J. Rael and A. Abidi, “The Designer’s Guide to High-Purity Oscillators,” Springer, Berlin, 2004.

[11] C.-Y. Jeong and C. Yoo, “5-GHz Low-Phase Noise CMOS Quadrature VCO,” IEEE Microwave Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2006, pp. 609-611. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2006.884908

[12] P. Dongmin and C. SeongHwan, “Design Techniques for a Low-Voltage VCO with Wide Tuning Range and Low Sensitivity to Environmental Variations,” IEEE Transac tions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2009, pp. 767-774.

[13] J. Jaeyoung, P. Upadyaya, L. Peng and H. Deukhyoun, “Compact Sub-1mW Low Phase Noise CMOS LC-VCO Based on Power Reduction Technique,” 2011 IEEE MTT S International Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), Baltimore, 5-10 June 2011, pp. 1-4.