Inclusive education has been recently proposed in primary and secondary educations in many countries. Children who need special education support should be educated together with typically developing children in general classes. Although many studies have examined the effectiveness of inclusive education, researchers have pointed out that some general education teachers experience problems in their relationships with children who have disabilities such as developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities. In this paper, we review teacher training programs in a Japanese university and offer suggestions to enhance teachers’ relationships with disabled children. In our discussion, we focused on adult attachment theory, which is an affective connection and interactions between self and others. First, we reviewed the importance of teachers’ relationships with disabled children. Second, we reviewed attachment theories with respect to the quality of teacher-child relationships, and lastly, we proposed that adult attachment theory is a mediator in the quality of teacher-child relationships. We proposed a direction for the application of these conceptual assumptions to the teacher-training program for inclusive education in a Japanese university.
Cite this paper
Takahashi, J. (2013). Suggestions for a Teacher Training Program for Inclusive Education in a Japanese University. Creative Education, 4, 509-513. doi: 10.4236/ce.2013.48074.
 Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.709
 Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
 Baker, J. A. (1998). The social context of school satisfaction among urban, low-income, African-American students. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 25-44. doi:10.1037/h0088970
 Baker, J. A. (2006). Contributions of teacher-child relationships to posi tive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 211-229. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2006.02.002
 Baker, B. L., Mcintyre, L. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K., Edelbrock, C., & Low, C. (2003). Preschool children with and without developmental delay: Behavior problems and parenting stress over time. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 217-230.
 Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.
 Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationships and children’s early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 67-79. doi:10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00029-5
 Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). Children’s interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 35, 61-79.
 Blacher, J., Baker, B. L., & Eisenhower, A. S. (2009). Student-teacher relationship stability across early school years for children with in tellectual disability or typical development. American Journal on In tellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114, 322-339.
 Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. London: Hogarth Press.
 Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
 Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report meas urement of attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson, & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: Guilford Press.
 Carvill, S. (2001). Sensory impairments, intellectual disability and psy chiatry. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45, 467-483.
 Clegg, J., & Sheard, C. (2002). Challenging behavior and insecure attachment. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46, 503-506.
 De Schipper, J., C., Stolk, J., & Schuengel, C. (2006). Professional caretakers as attachment figures in day care centers for children with intellectual disability and behavior problems. Research in Develop mental Disabilities, 27, 203-216. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2005.02.001
 De Schipper, J., C., & Schuengel, C. (2010). Attachment behavior to wards support staff in young people with intellectual disabilities: As sociations with challenging behavior. Journal of Intellectual Disabil ity Research, 54, 584-596. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01288.x
 Dissanayake, C., & Crossley, S. A. (1997). Autistic children’s respons es to separation and reunion with their mothers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 295-312.
 DiTommaso, E., Brannen-McNulty, C., Ross, L., & Burgess, M. (2003). Attachment styles, social skills and loneliness in young adults. Per sonality and Individual Differences, 35, 303-312.
 Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2007). Early student teacher relationships of children with and without intellectual dis ability: Contributions of behavioral, social, and self-regulatory com petence. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 363-383.
 Gagnon, C., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (1992). Parent-teacher agree ment on kindergarteners’ behavior problems. Journal of Child Psy chology and Psychiatry, 33, 1255-1261.
 Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625-638.
 Hastings, R. P. (2005). Staff in special education settings and behavior problems: Towards a framework for research and practice. Educa tional Psychology, 25, 207-221.
 Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Conceptualizing romantic love as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.
 Hori, M., & Kobayashi, T. (2010). Association among adult attachment, social skills, and psychological adjustment for university students. Journal of School Mental Health, 13, 41-48.
 Howes, C., & Ritchie, S. (1999). Attachment organizations in children with difficult life circumstances. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 251-268.
 Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Jackson, T. (1999). Influence of tea cher-student relationship on childhood aggression: A prospective stu dy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 173-184.
 Imae, K., & Shimizu, H. (1994). The effects of the teaching practicum on becoming a teacher. Japanese Journal of Educational Technology, 17, 185-195.
 Kanemasa, Y. (2005). Early adult attachment styles, emotional regula tion and sensitivity, and interpersonal stress coping: An examination of conceptual consistency in infant and early adult attachment styles. The Japanese Journal of Personality, 14, 1-16.
 Kanemasa, Y. (2007). The relationships between early adult attachment styles and adjustment in friendships. The Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 22, 274-284.
 Kanemasa, Y., & Daibo, I. (2003). Early adult attachment styles and social adjustment. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 74, 466-473.
 Koegel, L., Matos-Freden, R., Lang, R., & Koegel, R. (2012). Interven tions for children with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive school settings. Cognitive and Behavioral practice, 19, 401-412.
 Koizumi, R. (2008). Do experiences of voluntary activity enhance per ceived teaching competence of education major students: Compari son between graduates in teaching positions at the school and those in other jobs? Bulletin of Fukuoka University of Education, Part IV, Education and Psychology, 57, 49-54.
 Lang, I. A., Marlow, R., Goodman, R., Meltzer, H., & Ford, T. (2013). Influence of problematic child-teacher relationships on future psychi atric disorder: Population survey with 3-year follow-up. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 336-341.
 Lawson, D. M., Barnes, A. D., Madkins, J. P., & Francios-Lamonte, B. M. (2006) Changes in male partner abuser attachment styles in group treatment. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43, 232-237.
 Libbey, H. P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: At tachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. Journal of School Health, 74, 274-283.
 Mclntyre, L. L., Blacher, J., & Baker, B. L. (2006). The transition to school: Adaptation in young children with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 349-361.
 Murphy, B., & Bates, G. W. (1997). Adult attachment style and vul nerability to depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 835-844. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00277-2
 O’Connor, E., & McCartney, K. (2006). Testing associations between young children’s relationships with mothers and teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 87-98. doi:10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
 Pianta, R. C. (2001). The student-teacher relationship scale. Char lottesville, VA: University of Virginia.
 Pianta, R. C., & Stuhlman, M. W. (2004). Teacher-child relationships and children’s success in the first years of school. School Psychology Review, 33, 444-458.
 Pivik, J., McComas, J., & Laflamme, M. (2002). Barriers and facilita tors to inclusive education. Exceptional Children, 69, 97-107.
 Riley, P. (2009). An adult attachment perspective on the student teacher relationship & classroom management difficulties. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 626-635. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2008.11.018
 Robertson, K., Chamberlain, B., & Kasari, C. (2003). General educa tion teachers’ relationships with included students with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 123-130.
 Roeden, J. M., Maaskant, M. A., Koomen, H. M. Y., Candel, M. J. J. M., & Curfs, L. M. G. (2012). Assessing client-caregiver relation ships and the applicability of the ‘student-teacher relationship scale’ for people with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 104-110. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.08.027
 Rogers, S. J., Ozonoff, S., & Maslin-Cole, C. (1991). A comparative study of attachment behavior in young children with autism or other psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 483-488.
 Rutgers, A. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A. (2004). Autism and attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1123-1134. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.t01-1-00305.x
 Schuengel, C., Kef, S., Damen, S., & Worm, M. (2010). ‘People who need people’: Attachment and professional caring. Journal of Intel lectual Disability Research, 54, 38-47.
 Strupp, H. H., & Binder, J. L. (1984). Psychotherapy in a new key. New York: Basic Books.
 Takahashi, J., Tamaki, K., & Yamawaki, N. (in press). Autism spec trum, attachment styles, and social skills in university student. Crea tive Education.
 Tamaki, K., & Takahashi, J. (in press). The relationship between adult attachment style and social skills in terms of the four-category model of attachment style. Tohoku Psychologica Folia.
 Travis, L. A., Binder, J. L., Bliwise, N. G., & Horne-Moyer, H. L. (2001) Changes in clients’ attachment styles over the course of time limited dynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 38, 149-159.
 UNESCO (2001). The open file on inclusive education. Paris: UNESCO.
 Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Goldberg, S., Kroonenberg, P. M., & Frenkl, O. J. (1992). The relative effects of maternal and child problems on the quality of attachment: A meta-analysis of attachment in clinical sam ples. Child Development, 63, 840-858.
 Wilkinson, R. B., & Parry, M. M. (2004). Attachment styles, quality of attachment relationships, and components of self-esteem in adoles cence. Proceedings of the 39th Australian Psychological Society An nual Conference. Melbourne: The Australian Psychological Society, 301-305.