FNS  Vol.4 No.8 A , August 2013
Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Mango Applying Bioactive Extracts from Their Seeds By-Products
Abstract: The effect of the application of ethanolic extract of “Haden” mango seeds to increase the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of fresh-cut mango flesh was evaluated. Phenolic HPLC analysis revealed that gallic acid was the major identified compound in the ethanolic extract (586.68 mg/g). Fresh-cut mango was treated for immersion within the ethanolic extract, packed and stored at 5℃ during 15 days. The content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and microbial growth of the treated mango were evaluated during the storage. Compared with the controls the treated fruit presented the highest content of the total phenolic (7.4 times), flavonoids (3.1 times), and antioxidant capacity DPPH·, TEAC and ORAC (2.9, 2.3 and 2.8 times, respectively), and showed a microbial reduction of 80% of mesophilic plate count and 97% of total molds. This study demonstrates the potential of phenolic compounds derived from mango seed as antimicrobials and antioxidants.
Cite this paper: V. Vega-Vega, B. Silva-Espinoza, M. Cruz-Valenzuela, A. Bernal-Mercado, G. González-Aguilar, I. Vargas-Arispuro, C. Corrales-Maldonado and J. Ayala-Zavala, "Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Mango Applying Bioactive Extracts from Their Seeds By-Products," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 197-203. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.48A024.

[1]   J. F. Ayala-Zavala, S. Y. Wang, C. Y. Wang and G. A. González-Aguilar, “Methyl Jasmonate in Conjunction with Ethanol Treatment Increases Antioxidant Capacity, Volatile Compounds and Postharvest Life of Strawberry Fruit,” European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 221, No. 6, 2005, pp. 731-738. doi:10.1007/s00217-005-0069-z

[2]   S. Muthuswamy and H. P. V. Rupasinghe, “Fruit Phenolics as Natural Antimicrobial Agents: Selective Antimicrobial Activity of Catechin, Chlorogenic Acid and Phloridzin,” International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 5, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 81-85.

[3]   S. Muthuswamy, H. P. V. Rupasinghe and G. W. Stratton, “Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamon Bark Extract on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria innocua and Fresh-Cut Apple Slices,” Journal of Food Safety, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2008, pp. 534-549. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4565.2008.00129.x

[4]   J. F. Ayala-Zavala, C. Rosas-Domínguez, V. Vega-Vega and G. A. González Aguilar, “Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh Cut Fruits Using Their Own Byproducts: Looking for Integral Exploitation,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 75, No. 8, 2010, pp. 175181.

[5]   T. P. Cushnie and A. J. Lamb, “Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoids,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2005, pp. 343-356. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.09.002

[6]   R. M. Raybaudi-Massilia, J. Mosqueda-Melgar, R. Soliva-Fortuny and O. Martin-Belloso, “Control of Pathogenic and Spoilage Microorganisms in Fresh-Cut Fruits and Fruit Juices by Traditional and Alternative Natural Antimicrobials,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2009, pp. 157-180.

[7]   P. G. Pietta, “Flavonoids as Antioxidants,” Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 63, No. 7, 2000, pp. 1035-1042. doi:10.1021/np9904509

[8]   S. Burt, “Essential Oils: Their Antibacterial Properties and Potential Applications in Foods-a Review,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2004, pp. 223-253. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.022

[9]   A. B. Martín-Diana, D. Rico and C. Barry-Ryan, “Green Tea Extract as a Natural Antioxidant to Extend the ShelfLife of Fresh-Cut Lettuce,” Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2008, pp. 593-603. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2008.04.001

[10]   M. A. Rojas-Graü, R. M. Raybaudi-Massilia, R. C. Soliva-Fortuny, R. J. Avena-Bustillos, T. H. McHugh and O. Martín-Belloso, “Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2007, pp. 254-264. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.01.017

[11]   Y. Kim, J. K. Brecht and S. T. Talcott, “Antioxidant Phytochemical and Fruit Quality Changes in Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Following Hot Water Immersion and Controlled Atmosphere Storage,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 105, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1327-1334. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.050

[12]   V. Vega-Vega, “Enriquecimiento de la Capacidad Antioxidante y Protección Antimicrobiana del Mango Fresco Cortado Aplicando Compuestos Fenólicos de sus Subproductos,” Master Thesis, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, 2011.

[13]   Y. Y. Soong and P. J. Barlow, “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Selected Fruit Seeds,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2004, pp. 411-417. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.003

[14]   G. Oboh and J. B. T. Rocha, “Distribution and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Ripe and Unripe Tree Pepper (Capsicum pubescens),” Journal of Food Biochemistry, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2007, pp. 456-473.

[15]   M. J. Simirgiotis, P. D. S. Caligari and G. Schmeda-Hirschmann, “Identification of Phenolic Compounds from the Fruits of the Mountain Papaya Vasconcellea pubescens A. Dc. Grown in Chile by Liquid ChromatographyUv Detection-Mass Spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 115, No. 2, 2009, pp. 775-784. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.071

[16]   V. L. Singleton and J. A. Rossi, “Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents,” American Journal of Enology and Vitiviniculture, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1965, pp. 144-158.

[17]   J. Zhishen, T. Mengcheng and W. Jianming, “The Determination of Flavonoid Contents in Mulberry and Their Scavenging Effects on Superoxide Radicals,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 64, No. 4, 1999, pp. 555-559. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

[18]   J. F. Ayala-Zavala, S. Y. Wang, C. Y. Wang and G. A. González-Aguilar, “High Oxygen Treatment Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Postharvest Life of Strawberry Fruit,” Food Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2007, pp. 166-173.

[19]   R. Re, N. Pellegrini, A. Proteggente, A. Pannala, M. Yang and C. Rice-Evans, “Antioxidant Activity Applying an Improved ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Assay,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 9-10, 1999, pp. 1231-1237. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3

[20]   CFSAN/FDA, “Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online,” 2001.

[21]   NCSS—Number Cruncher Statistical Systems, “Statistical Program for Windows,” Kaysville, Utah, 2007.

[22]   A. E. M. Abdalla, S. M. Darwish, E. H. E. Ayad and R. M. El-Hamahmy, “Egyptian Mango By-Product 2: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extract and Oil from Mango Seed Kernel,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1141-1152. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.026

[23]   D. Puravankara, V. Boghra and R. S. Sharma, “Effect of Antioxidant Principles Isolated from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seed Kernels on Oxidative Stability of Buffalo Ghee (Butter Fat),” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 80, No. 4, 2000, pp. 522-526. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(200003)80:4<522::AID-JSFA560>3.0.CO;2-R

[24]   S. S. Arogba, “Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel: Chromatographic Analysis of the Tannin, and Stability Study of the Associated Polyphenol Oxidase Activity,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2000, pp. 149-156. doi:10.1006/jfca.1999.0838

[25]   Y. C. Chen, J. T. Lin, S. C. Liu, P. S. Lu and D. J. Yang, “Composition of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Flower Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacities Estimated with Human Ldl, Erythrocyte, and Blood Models,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 76, No. 5, 2011, pp. 724-728. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02164.x

[26]   K. T. Chung, C. I. Wei and M. G. Johnson, “Are Tannins a Double-Edged Sword in Biology and Health?” Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1998, pp. 168-175. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(98)00028-4

[27]   S. M. R. Ribeiro, L. C. A. Barbosa, J. H. Queiroz, M. Knodler and A. Schieber, “Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Varieties,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 110, No. 3, 2008, pp. 620-626. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.067

[28]   F. Guillen, P. J. Zapata, D. Martinez-Romero, S. Castillo, M. Serrano and D. Valero, “Improvement of the Overall Quality of Table Grapes Stored under Modified Atmosphere Packaging in Combination with Natural Antimicrobial Compounds,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2007, p. 185. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00305.x

[29]   K. N. Seneviratne and R. T. Kotuwegedara, “Antioxidant Activities of the Phenolic Extracts of Seed Oils and Seed Hulls of Five Plant Species,” Food Science and Technology International, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2009, pp. 419-425. doi:10.1177/1082013209352718