Silver nanoparticles in the form of silver based chemicals trace back their origin to time immemorial since the dilute forms of silver nitrate were used in place of antibiotics before they dominated the field of medicine. But, it has now become necessary to explore the anti-microbial properties of silver based chemicals again due to the microbes gaining resistance against the wide range of present day antibiotics. The advancements in the field of medicine and technology started to coalesce to combat the adaptability of microbes as they successfully become tolerant to antibiotics and it manifested in the form a current technology, Nanomedicine. Nanomedicine deals about the medicines at a nano scale to rarefy the intensity of medicine to unaffected tissues and reduce the volume of medicine used. In the present context, our attempt is to develop potential anti-microbial particles in the form of silver nanoparticles by using the biological phenomena which we call Green synthesis an eco-friendly approach to conventional chemical synthesis. The enzymatic machinery of the olive seeds has been exploited to produce silver nanoparticles and test their efficacy as antifungal agents before we characterized their physical properties using UV-Vis, TEM, and FTIR analysis. The efficacy of these particles as antagonists on fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger a causative agent of Aspergillosis in human beings and is promising and they have a lot of scope for the purpose and hope the technology leads the next generation of anti-microbials.
Cite this paper
Khadri, H. , Alzohairy, M. , Janardhan, A. , Kumar, A. and Narasimha, G. (2013) Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with High Fungicidal Activity from Olive Seed Extract. Advances in Nanoparticles, 2, 241-246. doi: 10.4236/anp.2013.23034.
 T. L. Riddin, M. Gericke and C. G. Whiteley, “Analysis of the Inter and Extracellular Formation of Platinum Nanoparticles by Fusarium oxysporum. sp. Lycopersicum Using Surface Response Methodology,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 17, No. 14, 2006, pp. 3482-3489.
 K. B. Narayana and N. Sakthivel, “Biological Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles by Microbes,” Advances in Colloids and Interface Science, Vol. 156, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.cis.2010.02.001
 S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of Gold Nano Triangles and Silver Nanoparticles Using Aloe Vera Plant Extract,” Biotechnology Progress, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2006, pp. 577-583. doi:10.1021/bp0501423
 M. Sastry, A. Ahmad, K. M. Islam and R. Kumar, “Bio synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Fungi and Acti nomycetes,” Current Science, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2003, pp. 162-170.
 M. Uchida, T. Yamamoto and A. Taniguchi, “Reaction of Silver Ions and Some Aminoacids,” Journal of Antiba cterial and Antintifungal Agents, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2003, pp. 695-704.
 R. Kumar and H. Münstedt, “Silver Ion Release from Antimicrobial Polyamide/Silver Composites,” Biomate rials, Vol. 26, No. 14, 2005, pp. 2081-2088.
 J. S. Kim, E. Kuk, K. N. Yu, J. H. Kim, S. J. Park, H. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. K. Park, Y. H. Hwang, Y. K. Kim, Y. S. Lee, D. H. Jeong and M. H. Cho, “Antimicrobial Effects of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nanomedicine, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2007, pp. 95-101. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2006.12.001
 K. I. Al-Mughrabi, T. A. Aburjai, G. H. Anfoka and W. Shahrour, “Antifungal Activity of Olive Cake Extracts,” Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2001, pp. 240-244.
 S. Shankar, A. Ahmad and M. Sastry, “Geranium Leaf Assisted Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles,” Biote chnology Progress, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1627-1631.
 V. Bansal, D. Rautaray, A. Bharde, K. Ahire, A. Sanyal, A. Ahmad, et al., “Fungus-Mediated Biosynthesis of Sil ica and Titania Particles,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 15, No. 26, 2005, pp. 2583-2589.
 J. Huang, Q. Li, D. Sun, Y. Lu, Y. Su, X. Yang, et al., “Biosynthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles by Novel Sundried Cinnamomum Camphora Leaf,” Nanotechnol ogy, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2007, Article ID: 105104.
 R. Sanghi and P. Verma, “Biomimetic Synthesis and Characterisation of Protein Capped Silver Nanoparticles,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2009, pp. 501-504. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.05.048
 M. Rai, A. Yadav and A. Gade, “Silver Nanoparticles as a New Generation of Antimicrobials,” Biotechnology Ad vances, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2009, pp. 76-83.
 D. W. Brett, “A Discussion of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent: Alleviating the Confusion,” Ostomy Wound Ma nage, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2006, pp. 34-41.
 E. Hidalgo and C. Domínguez, “Study of Cytotoxicity Mechanisms of Silver Nitrate in Human Dermal Fibro blast,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 98, No. 3, 1998, pp. 169-179. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(98)00114-3
 P. Spacciapoli, D. Buxton, D. Rothstein and P. Friden, “Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nitrate against Periodontal Pathogens,” Journal of Periodontal Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2001, pp. 108-113.
 J. M. Conlon, J. Kolodziejek and N. Nowotny, “Antimicrobial Peptides from Ranid Frogs: Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Markers and a Potential Source of New Therapeutic Agents,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 1696, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-14.
 J. E. Paddle-Ledinek, Z. Nasa and H. J. Cleland, “Effect of Different Wound Dressings on Cell Viability and Proliferation,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 117, No. 7, 2006, pp. 110S-118S.
 E. Ulkur, O. Oncul, H. Karagoz, E. Yeniz and B. Celikoz, “Comparison of Silver-Coated Dressing (Acticoat), Chlo rhexidine Acetate 0.5% (Bacti-Grass), and Fusidic Acid 2% (Fucidin) for Topical Antibacterial Effect in Methicil lin-Resistant Staphylococci-Contaminated, Full-Skin Thi ckness Rat Burn Wounds,” Burns, Vol. 31, No. 7, 2005, pp. 874-877. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2005.05.002
 C. A. Mirkin and T. A. Taton, “Semiconductors Meet Bi ology,” Nature, Vol. 405, No. 6787, 2000, pp. 626-627.
 T. Hamouda, A. Myc, B. Donovan, A. Shih, J. D. Reuter and J. R. Baker, “A Novel Surfactant Nanoemulsion with a Unique Non-Irritant Topical Antimicrobial Activity against Bacteria, Enveloped Viruses and Fungi,” Microbiological Research, Vol. 156, No. 1, 2000, pp. 1-7.
 P. Dibrov, J. Dzioba, K. K. Gosink and C. C. Hase, “Chemiosmotic Mechanism of Antimicrobial Activity of Ag(+) in Vibrio Cholera,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother, Vol. 46, No. 8, 2002, pp. 2668-2670.
 I. Dragieva, S. Stoeva, P. Stoimenov, E. Pavlikianov and K. Klabunde, “Complex Formation in Solutions for Che mical Synthesis of Nanoscaled Particles Prepared by Borohydride Reduction Process,” Nanostructured Mate rials, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999, pp. 267-270.
 S. W. Kim, J. H. Jung, K. Lamsal, J. S. Min and Y. S. Lee, “Antifungal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Various Plant Pathogenic Fungi,” Mycobiology, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2012, pp. 53-58.