FNS  Vol.4 No.8 A , August 2013
Indigenous Purple Vegetable Extracts Protect against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants in acid hydrolysates of six of Taiwan’s indigenous purple-leaved vegetables (IPLV), including purple-leaved sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lamark), purple-leaved gynura line 1 (Gynura bicolor D.C.), purple-leaved gynura line 2 (Gynura bicolor D.C.), purple-leaved perilla line 1 (Perilla frutescents L. Britton), bicolored-leaved perilla line 2 (Perilla frutescens L. Britton), and heartleaf houttuynia (Houttuynia cordata Thumb.). Their antioxidant activity and ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage was also evaluated. The antioxidants identified included flavonoids, anthocyanidins and flavonols. Both purple-leaved perilla line 1 and bicolored-leaved perilla line 2 were found to be abundant in cynidin, malvidin, and myricetin. Moreover, purple-leaved sweet potato and heartleaf houttuynia were found to be abundant in quercetin. Purple-leaved sweet potato and purple-leaved perilla line 1 contained significantly higher inhibition percentages of conjugated diene formation than other vegetables. Purple-leaved sweet potato, heartleaf houttuynia, purple-leaved perilla line 1, and bicolored-leaved perilla line 2 had better inhibition percentages of tail DNA% and tail moment in the study. In conclusion, the abovementioned four indigenous purple-leaved vegetables abounded in antioxidants had strong antioxidant activity for protecting DNA in lymphocytes from oxidative damages.
Cite this paper: P. Chao, W. Huang, S. Hu, H. Lo, K. Lin, M. Huang, T. Chang and C. Yang, "Indigenous Purple Vegetable Extracts Protect against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 62-70. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.48A008.

[1]   W. Ren, Z. Qiao, H. Wang, L. Zhu and L. Zhang, “Flavonoids: Promising Anticancer Agents,” Medicinal Research Reviews, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2003, pp. 519-534. doi:10.1002/med.10033

[2]   A. King and G. Young, “Characteristics and Occurrence of Phenolic Phytochemicals,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 99, No. 2, 1999, pp. 213-218. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00051-6

[3]   M. P. Kahkonen and M. Heinonen, “Antioxidant Activity of Anthoxyanins and Their Aglycons,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2003, pp. 628-633. doi:10.1021/jf025551i

[4]   G. Shklar, “Oral Mucosal Carcinogenesis in Hamsters: Inhibition by Vitamin E,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 68, No. 5, 1982, pp. 791-797.

[5]   N. Ito and M. Hirose, “The Role of Antioxidants in Chemical Carcinogenesis,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, Vol. 78, No. 10, 1987, pp. 1011-1026.

[6]   D. E. McClain, J. F. Kalinich and N. Ramakrishnan, “Trolox Inhibits Apoptosis in Irradiated MOLT-4 Lymphocytes,” FASEB Journal, Vol. 9, No. 13, 1995, pp. 13451354.

[7]   S. J. Duthie, A. R. Collins, G. G. Duthie and V. L. Dobson, “Quercetin and Myricetin Protect against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced DNA Damage (Strand Breaks and Oxidised Pyrimidines) in Human Lymphocytes,” Mutation Research, Vol. 393, No. 3, 1997, pp. 223-231. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(97)00107-1

[8]   W. Lopaczynski and S. H. Zeisel, “Antioxidants, Programmed Cell Death, and Cancer,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2001, pp. 295-307. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(00)00288-8

[9]   G. A. Liu and R. L. Zheng, “Protection against Damaged DNA in the Single Cell by Polyphenols,” Die Pharmazie, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2002, pp. 852-854.

[10]   Y. T. Szeto, A. R. Collins and I. F. F. Benzie, “Effects of Dietary Antioxidants on DNA Damage in Lysed Cells Using a Modified Comet Assay Procedure,” Mutation Research, Vol. 500, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 31-38. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00298-6

[11]   M. C. Lazzé, R. Pizzala, M. Savio, L. A. Stivala, E. Prosperi and L. Bianchi, “Anthocyanins Protect against DNA Damage Induced by Tert-Butylhydroperoxide in Rat Smooth Muscle and Hepatoma Cells,” Mutation Research, Vol. 535, No. 1, 2003, pp. 103-115. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(02)00285-1

[12]   G. Cao, S. L. Brooth, J. A. Sadowski, R. L. Peior and A. J. Clin, “Increases in Human Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after Consumption of Controlled Diets High in Fruit and Vegetables,” Vol. 68, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1081-1087.

[13]   G. Cao, E. Sofic and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and Common Vegetables,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 11, 1996, pp. 34263431. doi:10.1021/jf9602535

[14]   Y. H. Chu, C. L. Chang and H. F. Hsu, “Flavonoid Content of Several Vegetables and Their Antioxidant Activity,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 80, No. 5, 2000, pp. 561-566. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(200004)80:5<561::AID-JSFA574>3.0.CO;2-#

[15]   F. Hayase and H. Kato, “Antioxidative Components of Sweet Potatoes,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1984, pp. 37-46. doi:10.3177/jnsv.30.37

[16]   A. I. Mohamed and A. S. Hussein, “Chemical Composition of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea),” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1994, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1007/BF01091224

[17]   T. T. Jong and S. W. Chau, “Antioxidative Activities of Constituents Isolated from Pandanus Odoratissimus,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 49, No. 7, 1998, pp. 2145-2148. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00390-2

[18]   E. D. Lund, “Cholesterol Binding Ccapacity of Fiber from Tropical Fruits and Vegetables,” Lipids, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1984, pp. 85-90. doi:10.1007/BF02534496

[19]   M. Yoshikawa, T. Murakami, H. Shimada, S. Yoshizumi, M. Saka, J. Yamahara and H. Matsuda, “Medicinal FoodStuffs. XIV. On the Bioactive Constituents of Moroheiya (2): New Fatty Acids, Corchorifatty Acids A, B, C, D, E, and F, from the Leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. (Tiliaceae): Structures and Inhibitory Effect on NO Production in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages,” Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 6, 1998, pp. 10081014. doi:10.1248/cpb.46.1008

[20]   K. Kar, V. N. Puri, G. K. Patnaik, R. N. Sur, B. N. Dhawan, D. K. Kulshrestea and R. P. Rastogi, “Pasmolytic Constituents of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud: Pharmacological Evaluation of Himachalol,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1975, pp. 258-266. doi:10.1002/jps.2600640213

[21]   V. Molina Cuevas, M. L. Arruzazabala, D. Carbajal Quintana, R. Mas Ferreirom and S. Valdes Garcia, “Effect of Policosanol on Arterial Blood Pressure in Rats. Study of the Pharmacological Interaction with Nifedipine and Propranolol,” Archives of Medical Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1998, pp. 21-24.

[22]   K. H. Lin, P. Y. Chao, C. M. Yang, W. C. Cheng, H. F. Lo and T. R. Chang, “The Effects of Flooding and Drought Stresses on the Antioxidant Constituents in Sweet Potato Leaves,” Botanical Studies, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2006, pp. 417-426.

[23]   U. Justesen, P. Knuthsen and T. Leth, “Quantitative Analysis of Flavonols, Flavones, and Flavanones in Fruits, Vegetables and Beverages by High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo-diode Array and Mass Spectrometric,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 799, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 101-110. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(97)01061-3

[24]   A. L. Mancinelli, C. P. Huang-Yang, P. Lindquist, O. R. Anderson and I. Rabino, “Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis III the Action of Streptomycin on the Synthesis of Chlorophyll and Anthocyanin,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 55, No. 2, 1975, pp. 251-257. doi:10.1104/pp.55.2.251

[25]   T. A. Geissman, “Anthocyanins, Chalcones, Aurones, Flavones and Related Water-Soluble Plant Pigments,” In: K. Peach and M. V. Tracey, Eds., Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1955, pp. 420-433.

[26]   H. Mitsuda, K. Yasumodo and K. Iwami, “Antioxidative Action of Indole Compounds during the Autoxidation of Linoleic Acid,” Eiyo to Shokuryo, Vol. 19, 1966, pp. 210214. doi:10.4327/jsnfs1949.19.210

[27]   J. Cole, M. H. L. Green, S. E. James, L. Henderson and H. Cole, “A Further Assessment of Factors Influencing Measurements of Thioguanine-Resistant Mutant Frequency in Circulating T-Lymphocytes,” Vol. 204, No. 3, 1988, pp. 493-507.

[28]   A. H. Cory, T. C. Owen, J. A. Barltrop and J. G. Cory, “Use of an Aqueous Soluble Tetrazolium/Formazan Assay for Cell Growth Assays in Culture,” Cancer Communications, Vol. 3, No. 7, 1991, pp. 207-212.

[29]   S. C. Tang, H. F. Lo, K. H. Lin, T. J. Cheng, C. M. Yang and P. Y. Chao, “The Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Taiwan Indigenous Purple-leaved Vegetables,” Journal Taiwan Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2013, pp. 43-57.

[30]   W. Y. Huang, “The Antioxidant Capacity of Flavonoids in Red Indigenous Vegetables and Their Protection Role in DNA Oxidative Damage of Lymphocytes,” M.S. Thesis, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, 2003.

[31]   S. Furuta, Y. Nishiba and I. Suda, “Fluorometric Assey for Screening Antioxidative Activity of Vegetables,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 62, No. 3, 1997, pp. 526-528. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1997.tb04422.x

[32]   Y. Lee, L. R. Howard and B. Villalon, “Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Cultivars,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1995, pp. 473-476. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb09806.x

[33]   M. Noroozi, W. J. Angerson and M. E. Lean, “Effects of Flavonoids and Vitamin C on Oxidative DNA Damage to Human Lymphocytes,” The American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, No. 6, 1998, pp. 1210-1218.

[34]   C. Y. Zhu and S. Loft, “Effects of Brussels Sprouts Extracts on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced DNA Strand Breaks in Human Lymphocytes,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 39, No. 12, 2001, pp. 1191-1197. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(01)00061-8